英语非谓语动词的分类及其用法

英语非谓语动词的分类及其用法
一、英语非谓语动词及其分类 (一) 谓语动词与非谓语动词 英语动词有谓语动词与非谓语动词之分,在句子中充当谓语的动词,是动词 的谓语形式,也叫谓语动词(Finite Verb)。如: He is writing a letter. 他正在写信。 而在句子中充当其他成分的(如主语,宾语,表语,定语,状语等)的动词, 是动词的非谓语形式,称为非谓语动词(Non-finite Verb)。如: Smoking is not good for your health. 吸烟对你的身体有害(主语) He found those novels hard to read. 他发现那些小说很难读。(状语) 谓语动词与非谓语动词之间最重要的区别在于前者有“时”(Tense)的标 志,而后者没有“时”的标志。举例列表如下:

原形 walk pass eat

现在时 walk(s) pass(es) eat(s)

过去时 walked passed ate

不定式 (to) walk (to) pass (to) eat

-ing 分词 walking passing eating

-ed 分词 walked passed eaten

(二) 非谓语动词的分类 英语的非谓语动词有三种: 1. 不定式(infinitive); 2. -ing 分词(-ing participle); 其中又分为现在分词与动名词; 3. -ed 分词(-ed participle)。也就是我们通常所说的过去分词。

二、非谓语动词在句法中的用法 (一)不定式的句法功能: 1. 作主语: To lose your heart means failure. 动词不定式短语作主语时,常用 it 作形式主语,例如上句可用如下形式: It means failure to lose your heart.

2. 作表语: Her job is to clean the hall. 3. 作宾语: 常与不定式做宾语连用的动词有:want, hope, wish, offer, fail, plan, learn, pretend, refuse, manage, help, agree, promise, prefer, 如果不定 式(宾语)后面有宾语补足语,则用 it 作形式宾语,真正的宾语(不定式)后 置,放在宾语补足语后面,例如: Mary found it important to study the situation in Russia. 动词不定式也可充当介词宾语,如: I have no choice but to stay here. 动词不定式前有时可与疑问词连用,如: He gave us some advice on how to learn English. 4. 作宾语补足语: 在复合宾语中, 动词不定式可充当宾语补足语, 如下动词常跟这种复合宾语: want, wish, ask, tell, order, beg, permit, help, advise, persuade, allow, prepare, cause, force, call on, wait for, invite. 此外,介词有时也与这种复合宾语连用,如: With a lot of work to do, he didn't go to the cinema. 有些动词如 make, let, see, watch, hear, feel, have 等与不带有 to 的 不定式连用,但改为被动语态时,要还原 to。如: I saw him cross the road. He was seen to cross the road. 5. 作定语: 动词不定式作定语, 放在所修饰的名词或代词后。 与所修饰名词有如下关系: ① 动宾关系: I have a meeting to attend. 注意:不定式为不及物动词时,所修饰的名词如果是地点、工具等,应有必 要的介词,如: He found a good house to live in.

The child has nothing to worry about. 如果不定式修饰 time, place, way,可以省略介词: He has no place to live. This is the best way to work out this problem. 如果不定式所修饰的名词是不定式动作的承受者, 不定式可用主动式也可用 被动式: Have you got anything to send? Have you got anything to be sent? ② 说明所修饰名词的内容: We have made a plan to finish the work. ③ 被修饰名词是不定式逻辑主语: He is the first to get here. 6. 作状语: ① 表目的: He worked day and night to get the money. She sold her hair to buy the watch chain. 注意:不定式放句首时,逻辑主语与句子主语要一致: wrong:To save money, every means has been tried. right:To save money, he has tried every means. wrong:To learn English well, a dictionary is needed. right:To learn English well, he needs a dictionary. ② 表结果: He arrived late to find the train gone. 常用 only 放在不定式前表示强调: I visited him only to find him out. ③ 表原因: They were very sad to hear the news. ④ 表程度: It's too dark for us to see anything.

7. 作独立成分: To tell you the truth, I don't like the way he talked. 8. 不定式的省略:保留 to 省略 do 动词 If you don't want to do it, you don't need to. 9. 不定式的并列:第二个不定式可省略 to He wished to study medicine and become a doctor.

(二)-ing 分词的句法功能——-ing 分词又分为动名词及现在分词。 1. 动名词的句法功能: ① 作主语: Reading aloud is very helpful. 当动名词短语作主语时常用 it 作形式主语。如: It's no use quarrelling. ② 作表语: In the ant city, the queen's job is laying eggs. ③ 作宾语: They haven't finished building the dam. We have to prevent the air from being polluted. 注意:动名词既可作动词宾语也可作介词宾语,如上面两个例句。此外,动 名词作宾语时,若跟有宾语补足语,则常用形式宾语 it,例如: We found it no good making fun of others. 我们发现取笑他人不好。 注意:如下动词及短语只跟动名词作宾语:resist(抵抗),mind(介意), suggest(建议),delay(推迟),keep(on) (保持),look forward to (期昐), enjoy(喜欢), include(包括), appreciate(欣赏), imagine(想象), practise(实 践),finish(完成),consider(考虑),can't help(不禁),miss(错过)。以上 动词及短语可以通过口诀进行记忆:抗议(意)推辞(迟)昐喜报,心(欣)想 事(实)成考不错。 ④ 作定语: Is there a swimming pool in your school?

⑤ 作同位语: His habit, listening to the news on the radio remains unchanged. 2. 现在分词的句法功能: ① 作定语:现在分词作定语,当分词单独做定语时,放在所修饰的名词前; 如果是分词短语做定语放在名词后。如: In the following years he worked even harder. The man speaking to the teacher is our monitor's father. 现在分词作定语相当于一个定语从句的句法功能,如:in the following years 也可用 in the years that followed; the man speaking to the teacher 可改为 the man who is speaking to the teacher. ②作表语: The present situation is inspiring. be + doing 既可能表示现在进行时,也可能是现在分词做表语,它们的区 别在于 be + doing 表示进行的动作是进行时,而表示特征时是系动词 be 与现 在分词构成系表结构。 ③ 作宾语补足语: 如下动词后可跟现在分词作宾语补足语:see, let, make, listen, hear, have, watch, notice, feel, look at 等。如: Can you hear her singing the song in the next room? 以上动词同样也可以通过口诀进行记忆: 三让 (make, let, have) , 三看(see, look at, watch),两听(listen, hear),注意感觉(notice, feel)。 ④ 作状语: a. 作时间状语: (While) Working in the factory, he was an advanced worker. b.作原因状语: Being a League member, he is always helping others. c.作方式状语,表示伴随: He stayed at home, cleaning and washing. d.作条件状语:

(If) Playing all day, you will waste your valuable time. e.作结果状语: He dropped the glass, breaking it into pieces. f.作目的状语: He went swimming the other day. g.作让步状语: Though raining heavily, it cleared up very soon. h.与逻辑主语构成独立主格: I waiting for the bus, a bird fell on my heard. Time permitting, we'll do another two exercises. 有时也可用 with (without) +名词(代词宾格)+ 分词形式。如: With the lights burning, he fell asleep. 他点着灯睡着了。 i.作独立成分: Generally speaking, girls are more careful.

(三)-ed 分词的句法功能: 1. 作定语: Our class went on an organized trip last Monday. Those elected as committee members will attend the meeting. 注意:当过去分词是单词时,一般用于名词前,如果是过去分词短语,就放 在名词的后面。过去分词做定语相当于一个被动语态的定语从句。 2. 作表语: The window is broken. 注意:be + 过去分词,如果表示状态是系表结构,如果表示被动的动作是 被动语态。区别: The window is broken.(系表) The window was broken by the boy.(被动) 有些过去分词是不及物动词构成的,不表示被动,只表示完成。如: boiled water(开水)fallen leaves(落叶)newly arrived goods(新到

的货)the risen sun(升起的太阳)the changed world(变了的世界) 这类过去分词有: gone, come, fallen, risen, changed, arrived, returned, passed 等。 3. 作宾语补足语: I heard the song sung several times last week. 有时过去分词做 with 短语中的宾语补足语。如: With the work done, they went out to play. 4. 作状语: Praised by the teacher, he felt proud.(表示原因) Once seen, it can never be forgotten.(表示时间) Given more time, I'll be able to do it better.(表示条件) Though told of the danger, he still want to have a try.(表示让步)

三、非谓语动词用法比较 (一) 动词不定式和动名词作主语比较: 动名词作主语表示一般或抽象的多次性动作, 不定式作主语表示具体的或一 次性的动作,特别是将来的动作。例如: _______ is a good form of exercise for both young and old. A.The walk B.Walking C.To walk D.Walk(Key:B) (二) 动词不定式、动名词、分词作表语比较: 1. 不定式和动名词作表语的区别同作主语一样。 His job is building houses. Our task now is to increase food production. 2. 动词不定式和动名词作表语说明主语的内容,现在分词作表语表示主语 所具有的特征,过去分词作表语表示主语所处的状态。 The real problem is getting to know the needs of the customers. The most important thing is to put theory into practice. The purpose of new technologies is to make life easier,not to make it more difficult.

(三) 动词不定式和动名词作宾语比较: 1. 有些动词后只跟不定式作宾语, 如: want, wish, hope, manage, de- mand, promise,refuse,pretend,plan, offer,decide,agree,expect 等。 We agreed _____ here,but so far she hasn't turned up yet. A.having met B.meeting C.to meet D.to have met (Key:C)

2. 有些动词后只跟动名词作宾语,前文中已有提及 I would appreciate _____ back this afternoon. A.you to call (Key:C) 3. 有些动词后既可以跟不定式又可以跟动名词,意义上无多大区别,如: love, like,hate,prefer,intend,start, continue 等。 I intend to finish/finish- ing the task this morning. 4. 有些动词后既可以跟不定式,又可以跟动名词,但意义上有区别,如: forget to do something:忘记去做某事 forget doing something:忘记曾经做过某事 这一类词包括:forget,remember, mean,regret,stop,try 等。 (四) 动词不定式、分词作宾语补足语和主语补足语比较 1. 有些动词后只跟不定式作宾语补足语或主语补足语, 如: ask, tell, order, want,wish,warn, allow,advise,permit,forbid 等。 The patient was warned _____ oily food after the operation. A.to eat not B.eating not C.not to eat D.not eating(Key:C) B.you call C.you calling D.you“'re calling

2. 有些动词后既可以跟不定式, 又可以跟分词作宾语补足语或主语补足语, 但意义不同,如:see,watch,notice,observe,hear,feel,have, make 等, 且不定式不带 to,但在被动结构中必须带 to。不定式指动作的全过程;现在分 词指正在进行的动作的一部分,且表示主动意义;过去分词指已经完成的动作, 且表被动意义。 Paul doesn't have to be made _____.He always works hard. A.learn B.to learn C.learned D.learning(Key:B)

The manager discussed the plan that they would like to see _____ the

next year. A.carry out (Key:C) (五) 不定式、动名词、分词作定语比较 1. 不定式作定语表示“将要”,现在分词表示“正在”或主动,过去分词 表示“已经”。 The Olympic Games,_____ in 776 B.C.,did not include women players until 1912. A.first playing B.to be first played C.first played B.carrying out C.carried out D.to carry out

D.to be first playing(Key:C) 在本题中过去分词作定语,表示被动。 When I got back home I saw a message pinned to the door,_____“Sorry to miss you; will call later.” A.read B.reads C.to read D.reading(Key:D)

在本题中现在分词表示主动,补充说明纸条的内容。 2. 动名词作定语表示被修饰名词的用途,现在分词作定语表示被修饰名词 的动作。比较: a swimming pool 动名词作定语(表示用途) a swimming fish 现在分词作定语(表示状态) (六)不定式、动名词、分词作定语比较 动词不定式作状语修饰动词、形容词,表示原因、目的和结果,分词作状语 修饰动词和句子,表示时间、原因、条件、方式、伴随和结果。 _____ late in the morning,Bob turned off the alarm. A.To sleep B.Sleeping C.Sleep D.Having slept(Key:A)

_____ such heavy pollution already,it may now be too late to clean up the river. A.Having suffered (Key:A) B.Suffering C.To suffer D.Suffered


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