英语非谓语动词的分类及其用法

英语非谓语动词的分类及其用法 一、英语非谓语动词及其分类 (一) 谓语动词与非谓语动词 英语动词有谓语动词与非谓语动词之分,在句子中充当谓语的动词,是动词 的谓语形式,也叫谓语动词(Finite Verb)。如: He is writing a letter. 他正在写信。 而在句子中充当其他成分的(如主语,宾语,表语,定语,状语等)的动词, 是动词的非谓语形式,称为非谓语动词(Non-finite Verb)。如: Smoking is not good for your health. 吸烟对你的身体有害(主语) He found those novels hard to read. 他发现那些小说很难读。(状语) 谓语动词与非谓语动词之间最重要的区别在于前者有“时”(Tense)的标 志,而后者没有“时”的标志。举例列表如下: 原形 walk pass eat 现在时 walk(s) pass(es) eat(s) 过去时 walked passed ate 不定式 (to) walk (to) pass (to) eat -ing 分词 walking passing eating -ed 分词 walked passed eaten (二) 非谓语动词的分类 英语的非谓语动词有三种: 1. 不定式(infinitive); 2. -ing 分词(-ing participle); 其中又分为现在分词与动名词; 3. -ed 分词(-ed participle)。也就是我们通常所说的过去分词。 二、非谓语动词在句法中的用法 (一)不定式的句法功能: 1. 作主语: To lose your heart means failure. 动词不定式短语作主语时,常用 it 作形式主语,例如上句可用如下形式: It means failure to lose your heart. 2. 作表语: Her job is to clean the hall. 3. 作宾语: 常与不定式做宾语连用的动词有:want, hope, wish, offer, fail, plan, learn, pretend, refuse, manage, help, agree, promise, prefer, 如果不定 式(宾语)后面有宾语补足语,则用 it 作形式宾语,真正的宾语(不定式)后 置,放在宾语补足语后面,例如: Mary found it important to study the situation in Russia. 动词不定式也可充当介词宾语,如: I have no choice but to stay here. 动词不定式前有时可与疑问词连用,如: He gave us some advice on how to learn English. 4. 作宾语补足语: 在复合宾语中, 动词不定式可充当宾语补足语, 如下动词常跟这种复合宾语: want, wish, ask, tell, order, beg, permit, help, advise, persuade, allow, prepare, cause, force, call on, wait for, invite. 此外,介词有时也与这种复合宾语连用,如: With a lot of work to do, he didn't go to the cinema. 有些动词如 make, let, see, watch, hear, feel, have 等与不带有 to 的 不定式连用,但改为被动语态时,要还原 to。如: I saw him cross the road. He was seen to cross the road. 5. 作定语: 动词不定式作定语, 放在所修饰的名词或代词后。 与所修饰名词有如下关系: ① 动宾关系: I have a meeting to attend. 注意:不定式为不及物动词时,所修饰的名词如果是地点、工具等,应有必 要的介词,如: He found a good house to live in. The child has nothing to worry about. 如果不定式修饰 time, place, way,可以省略介词: He has no place to live. This is the best way to work out this problem. 如果不定式所修饰的名词是不定式动作的承受者, 不定式可用主动式也可用 被动式: Have you got anything to send? Have you got anything to be sent? ② 说明所修饰名词的内容: We have made a plan to finish the work. ③ 被修饰名词是不定式逻辑主语: He is the first to get here. 6. 作状语: ① 表目的: He worked day and night to get the money. She sold her hair to buy the watch chain. 注意:不定式放句首时,逻辑主语与句子主语要一致: wrong:To save money, every means has been tried. right:To save money, he has tried every means. wrong:To learn English well, a dictionary is needed. right:To learn English well, he needs a dictionary. ② 表结果: He arrived late to find the train gone. 常用 only 放在不定式前表示强调: I vi

相关文档

英语非谓语动词用法归类解析
【最新整理】2014年中考英语分类复习练习 非谓语动词用法详解
2014中考英语分类复习练习 非谓语动词用法详解
2014年中考英语分类复习_非谓语动词用法详解
2014年中考英语分类复习练习 非谓语动词用法详解
2014中考英语分类复习 非谓语动词用法详解与练习
初中英语分类练习——非谓语动词
高考英语 单项选择分类解析 非谓语动词
高考英语试题分类汇编——非谓语动词
全国高考英语真题分类汇编---非谓语动词解析
电脑版