The Fourth & Fifth Period
平静下来 add up calm down have got to be concerned about walk the dog go through
考试作弊 列出理由 对…狂热; 爱好 太多 控制住/摆布某人 与…相处；进展 cheat in exam make a list of reasons be crazy about far too much/many hold sb entirely in one’s power get along with
躲藏; 隐藏 hide away set down a series of on purpose in order to face to face
一连串的; 一系列; 一套 故意 为了 面对面地
Teacher prepare some pieces of paper with new words on them. One student explain. The rest try to guess the words.
SB P4 Ex1
1. trust 6. set down 7. go through
8. on purpose
9. face to face
4. calm down
10. according to
Ex. 2 on page 4:
Anne’s sister, Margot, was very ______ upset that the family had to move. She found it difficult to settle and ___________ calm down in the hiding place because she was _________ concerned ______ about whether they would be discovered. She knew she had to according __________ to her parents and _____ trust them this was necessary. At first she thought she crazy but later she realized that would go _______ it was better to ___________ go through this together.
Ex.3 on page 4:
1. If you are _________ concerned about somebody, you want to offer help because you are worried about him/her. purpose 2. Was it an accident or did David do it on _______? 3. From the very beginning, Paul made it clear that he would be ________ entirely in control. 4. He used to work ________ outdoors even in the middle of winter. 5. ______ Nature is all the animals, plants and other things in the world that are not made by people, and all the events that are not caused by people. 6. Just the _______ thought of more food made her feel sick.
have to = have got to
It’s a duty to do something. Assignment: find out all the sentences in warming up and reading that contain have to or have got to. And then transfer it into the other form. (5 sentences)
Ask the students to translate the following sentences by using have to and have got to , and please pay attention to their difference. 1. 你得走了。 You have got to go now. 结论：
肯定句中二者意思和用法完全相同。 都含有 “It’s a duty to do something.” 的意思。
You have to go now.
You don’t have to go now. You haven’t got to go now. Do you have to go now?
3. 你得走了吗？ 结论：
Have you got to go now?
在否定句和疑问句中， have to 需
要加上助动词来构成；而have got to 则直接在have后加not或 把have提前来构成。
WB P41 Ex1:
1. trust, concerned, calm down, in order to 2. share, thoughts, upsets, feelings 3. on purpose 4. crazy, share, cheats 5. has gone through
WB P41 Ex2:
1. They hid there for almost two years and never dared go out. 2. We tried to calm him down, but he kept shouting. 3. Don’t laugh at him. Sometimes you are not able to do as well as he (does). 4. In the early 20th century, China went through too many wars. 5. The children haven’t been outdoors all day. Let them play outdoors for a while. 6. Please use the word to make a sentence according to the situation given. 7. This series of readers is very interesting. 8. The man saved the girl from the river and her mother was very grateful. 9. Mr Jones lives alone and often feels lonely. 10. We communicate with each other by Internet.
Direct and Indirect Speech
The shoes are too big for me.
What did he say?
He said the shoes were too big for him.
直接引述别人的原话。 通常都用引号“”括起 来。 用自己的话把别人的 话转述出来。间接引 语在多数情况下都构 成一个宾语从句。
直接引语 和 间接引语 直接引语
Boys act one cartoon figure and says something. Teacher asks “What did he/she say?” Girls act the other cartoon figure and answer the teacher’s question. Then boys and girls exchange.
have been to I will on you II visited I am call good the Great at many countries. tomorrow. Wall dancing. yesterday.
She said she She said she had She said she She said she had was would call on visited the Great been to many good at dancing. Wall the day before. you the next day. countries.
直接引语是陈述句 , 变为间接引 语时用连词 that 引导宾语从句 . 从句中的 人称 , 时态 , 指示代词 , 时间状语,地点状语等相应变化.
“I don’t like computers,” Sarah said to her friends.
Sarah said to her friends that I don’t like computers. Sarah said she didn’t
Sarah said to her friends that she didn’t like computers.
Where are you Do you like going for your flowers? holiday?
She asked me She asked me where I were whether/if I going for my flowers? holiday. liked
直接引语是一般疑问句 , 变为间接引语 时,用连词if或whether连接。 直接引语是特殊疑问句 , 变为间接引语 时,仍用原来的疑问词作连词来引导。
2.一般疑问句: Is it easy to improve the condition of the soil?
( They asked him )
It is easy to improve the condition of the soil. They asked him
it is easy to improve the condition of the soil. is was
They asked him if it was easy to improve the condition of the soil.
When do you harvest the wheat ? ( They asked him )
you harvest the wheat
They asked him When you harvest the wheat. he
harvested They asked him when he harvested the wheat.
Follow Don’t make me, Be quiet! please! noise!
He ordered/told He Heordered/told asked me to me not to make me to be quiet! follow him. noise.
直接引语是祈使句，变成间接引语，把 动词原形变成动词不定式，否定句，在 动词不定式前加not或never. 并根据语气的不同在动词不定前加tell, ask, order ,beg ，advise等动词。
口诀 一 随 主 二 随 宾 说明
引号内的第一人 称变间引后与主 句主语的人称保 持一致
引号内的第二人 称变间引后与主 句宾语的人称保 持一致
She said,“ I like She said that she liked tennis. Tennis.” He said to Lily, He told Lily that “ you must get she must get up up early.” early.
第三 引号内的第三人 She said to me , She told me that 人称 称在变间引后人 “ They want to they wanted to help him.” help him. 不变 称不变
直接引语 一般现在时 现在进行时 一般过去时 现在完成时 间接引语
过去进行时 过去完成时 过去完成时
过去将来时 一般将来时 The teacher said, “ The sun is bigger than the earth.” The teacher said that the sun is bigger than the earth.
特殊: 直接引语若是客观真理,变为间接 引语时,时态不变.
、 其 他 特 殊 变 化
this, these today
that, those then, that day
this week yesterday
that week the day before
the week before four days before two days before the next day the next month
时 间 状 语
last week four days ago the day before yesterday tomorrow next month
come, bring go,
shall should will should Should（不变） would
may might can
might Might（不变） could
1)人称 2)时态 3)相应的时间地点状语 4)标点符号 5)大小写 6)问号改为句号 7)语序---疑问改陈述 8)宾语从句由什么引出 9)祈使句要使用动词不定式 来引述
Group work. Three students a group. One says something (please try to use the words and expressions learned in this unit), one asks, the third told the rest students what they said in Indirect Speech.
1. He said , “I m afraid I can’t finish this work.” He said that he were afraid he couldn’t finish that work. 2.He said , “I haven’t heard from him since May.” He said that he hadn’t heard from him since May. 3.Tom said “I will see you next week.” Tom said that he would see me the next week. 4. “Why were you late again?” The teacher said to me. The teacher asked me why I was late again. 5. “I don’t like swimming,” said Sarah. Sarah said she didn’t like swimming.
1.The teacher said，“Don’t be late，Mary. ” The teacher told ____. A. Mary not to be late B. Mary to be not late C. Mary are not late D. not to be late 2. He asked her，“Where are you going?” He asked her ____. A. where she were going B. where she was going to C. where she was going D. where she is going
3. The lady said，“I shall go there on time. ” The lady said that ____. A. she would come there on time B. she would come here on time C. she would got here on time D. he would got here on time 4. He said to me，“I wrote to my father yesterday. ” He told me he had written to his father ____. A. the yesterday B. before today C. the day before D. the next day
5. The teacher asked，“Are you waiting for the bus?” The teacher asked ____ for the bus. A. if I was waiting B. was I waiting C. you are waiting D. I was waiting 6. The professor said that light ____ faster than sound. A. travels B. traveled C. travel D. traveled 7. My mother asked me to show my homework to her. My mother said to me，“Show ____ homework. ” A. her my B. me your C. her your D. me his
8. It’s hard for me to imagine what I would be doing today if I ______ in love, at the age of seven, with the Melinda Cox Library in my hometown. A. wouldn’t have fallen B. had not fallen C. should fall D. were to fall 9. I wonder how he ____ that to the teacher. A. dare to say
C. not dare say
B. dare saying
D. dared say
1. SB P5Exx1,2 2. Go over what we learnt today.
3. Work in groups of four. Design a
questionnaire to find out what kind of friends your classmates are. (optional)
Grammar: Direct and Indirect Speech (1) 1. 转述他人的陈述→陈述句 2. 转述他人的疑问→一般疑问句 3. 转述他人的问题→特殊疑问句 1) He said , “I’m going to Beijing.”
→ He said that he was going to Beijing.
2) He asked, “Are you a teacher?” → He asked me if /whether I was a doctor. 3) She said , “What are you doing?” → She asked me what I was doing.
?陈述句 ?用连词that引导，that在口语中常省略。主句 的谓语动词可直接用引语中的said, 也可用told 来代替，注意，可以说said that, said to sb. that, told sb. that，不可直接说told that
? He said, “I have been to the Great Wall. ” ? He said to us that he had been to the Great Wall. ? He said, “I'll give you an examination next Monday. ” He told us that he would give us an examination the next Monday.
一般疑问句 ?间接引语用连词whether或if引导，原主句中 谓语动词said要改为asked(me/him/us等)， 语序是陈述句的语序
? He said, “Do you have any difficulty with pronunciation?” ? He asked (me) whether/if I had any difficulty with my pronunciation. ? He said, “You are interested in English, aren't you?” ? He asked whether I was interested in English.
特殊疑问句 ?原来的疑问词作为间接引语的连词，主 句的谓语动词用ask(sb. )来表达，语序 改为陈述句语序 ? He said to me，“What's your name?” ? He asked me what my name was. ? He asked us, “How many car factories have been built in your country?” ? He asked us how many car factories had been built in our country.
选择疑问句 ?用whether…or…表达，而不用if…or…，也 不用either…or… ? He asked, “Do you speak English or French?” ? He asked me whether I spoke English or French. ? I asked, “Will you take bus or take train?” ? I asked him whether he would take bus or take train.
that, those then, that day
时 间 状 语
this week yesterday
last week four days ago the day before yesterday tomorrow next month here come, bring
that week the day before
the week before four days before two days before
the next day the next month
there go, take
在直接引语变为间接引语时需要注意的变化 1. 注意时态的变化 2. 注意人称变化。
4. 注意时间的变化 5. 注意地点的变化 6. 注意个别趋向动词的变化
When you change a sentence from direct speech to indirect speech, you sometimes need to change the verb tense. You may also need to change pronouns , time in order to keep the same meaning.
? ? ? ? ? Direct indirect Present past Past past and past perfect Present perfect past perfect Past perfect past perfect
The geography teacher said, “The sun rises in the east and sets in the west.”
The geography teacher told us that the sun rises in the east and sets in the west.
2. 如果直接引语所表述的内容在目前和说话时 同样有效，变间接引语时，时态可不变
The children said, “We love this game.” They told us that they love that game.
3.主句谓语动词的时态是现在时态，在引述时， 时态不变。 She says, “I’ll never forget the days in the country.”
She says that she’ll never forget the days in the country.
1. 当主句的谓语动词是将来时的时候 2. 当直接引语部分带有具体的过去时间状 语时 3. 当直接引语中有以when, while引导的从 句，表示过去的时间时 4. 当引语是谚语、格言时 5. 当直接引语中有情态动词should, would, could, had better, would rather, might, must, ought to, used to, need时
1. He said , “I m afraid I can’t finish this work.” He said that he was afraid he couldn’t finish that work. 2.He said , “I haven’t heard from him since May.” He said that he hadn’t heard from him since May. 3.Tom said “I will see you next week.” Tom said that he would see me the next week.
4. “Why were you late again?” The teacher said to me. The teacher asked me why I was late again. 5. “I don’t like swimming,” said Sarah. Sarah said she didn’t like swimming. 6. His friends asked him if he would go to Dalian. His friends asked him, “Will you go to Dalian?” 7. “Have you been to Paris?” My classmate asked me. My classmate asked me if I had been to Paris.
1. Readers can ________ C quite well without knowing the exact meaning of each word. A. get over B. get in C. get along D. get through 解析：答案C。本题主要考查具体语境中 get短语的用法。全句意为：尽管读者不 知道每个单词的确切含义，但他们能够很 好得读懂，即读书进展得顺利，故用get along。
2. It’s hard for me to imagine what I would be doing B in love, at the age of seven, with today if I ______ the Melinda Cox Library in my hometown. A. wouldn’t have fallen B. had not fallen C. should fall D. were to fall 解析：答案B。本题考查了fall in love在虚拟语气 中的应用，从标志性时间状语at the age of seven看，宾语从句内容意指过去。在虚拟语气 结构中，若指过去，从句中动词形式用过去完成 时，主句中谓语动词形式用would/should/might/ could/have done。
3. Father went to his doctor for _______ B about his heart trouble. A. an advice B. advice C. advices D. the advices 解析：答案B。Advice若作“忠告，劝告， 建议”讲，无论什么情况下都不可数，故 A、C、D各项均属错误。Advice前不能 用不定冠词，但可被some，much，a lot of/lots of，a piece of，a bit of，a word of等修饰。
4. I wonder how he ____ D that to the teacher. A. dare to say B. dare saying C. not dare say D. dared say 解析：答案D。本题主要考查了dare作为 情态动词和实义动词的基本用法。作为实 义动词，dare有人称、数和时态的变化， 故dare to say与主语he相悖；dare doing 结构本身错误；dare的否定形式应为dare not do(情态动词)或don’t/doesn’t/didn’t dare (实义动词) to do。
Review the knowledge of direct speech and indirect speech and summarize the rules.