初中语法总结_图文

初中英语语法

一.名词

I. 名词的种类:

专有名词

普通名词

国名.地名.人名,

可数名词

不可数名词

团体.机构名称

个体名词

集体名词

抽象名词

物质名词

II. 名词的数:

1. 规则名词的复数形式: 名词的复数形式,一般在单数形式后面加-s 或-es。现将构成方法与读音规则列表如下:

规则

例词

1 一般情况在词尾加-s

map-maps, girl-girls, day-days

2 以 s, x, ch, sh 结尾的名词后加-es

class-classes, watch-watches, dish-dishes

以-f 或-fe 结尾的 变-f 和-fe 为 v 再加-es

3



加-s

thief-thieves, knife-knives, wife-wives belief-beliefs, , roof-roofs,

4 以辅音字母加 y 结尾的名词,变 y 为 i 加-es

party-parties, family-families, story-stories,

以元音字母加 y 结尾的名词,或专有名词以 y 结尾

5

toy-toys, boy-boys, day-days,

的,加-s

以 辅 音 字 母 加 -o 一般加-es

6

结尾的名词

不少外来词加-s

hero-heroes, potato-potatoes, tomato-tomatoes piano-pianos, photo-photos,

7 以元音字母加-o 结尾的名词加-s

radio-radios, zoo-zoos

2. 不规则名词复数: 英语里有些名词的复数形式是不规则的,现归纳如下:

规则

例词

1 改变名词中的元音字母或其他形式

man-men, woman-women, foot-feet,

2 单复数相同

sheep, deer, series, means, works, fish,

3 只有复数形式

trousers, clothes, glasses,

4 一些集体名词总是用作复数

people, police, cattle

部分集体名词既可以作单数(整体)也可以作复

5 数(成员)

class, family, group, government, population, team, public, party

加-s

Americans, Australians, Germans, Greeks, Swedes, Europeans

表示

单复数同形

Chinese, Japanese

6 “某国

人”

以 -man 或 -woman 结 尾 的 改 为 Englishmen, Frenchwomen

-men,-women

III. 名词的所有格: 名词在句中表示所有关系的语法形式叫做名词所有格。所有格分两种:一是名词词尾加’s 构成,二是由介词 of 加名词构

成。前者多表示有生命的东西,后者多表示无生命的东西。

1. ’s 所有格的用法:

1 表示时间

today’s newspaper, five weeks’ holiday

2 表示自然现象

the earth’s atmosphere, the tree’s branches

3 表示国家城市等地方的名词

the world’s population, China’s industry

4 表示工作群体

the ship’s crew, majority’s view, the team’s victory

3. of 所有格的用法: 用于无生命的东西:the legs of the chair, the cover of the book

有时也用于有生命的东西,尤其是有较长定语时:the classrooms of the first-year students

?二.冠词

冠词分为不定冠词(a, an),定冠词(the)。

I. 不定冠词的用法:

1 第一次提及某人某物,非特指

A boy is waiting for you.

3 表示“每一”相当于 every,one

We study eight hours a day.

用于人名前,表示不认识此人或与某名人有类

4 似性质的人或事

A Mr. Smith came to visit you when you were out

5 用于固定词组中

a bit, once upon a time, in a hurry, have a walk,

6 用于 quite, rather, many, half, what, such 之后 This room is rather a big one.

7 用于 so(as, too, how)+形容词之后

She is as clever a girl as you can wish to meet.

II. 定冠词的用法:

1 表示某一类人或物

The horse is a useful animal.

2 用于世上独一无二的事物名词前

the universe, the moon。

3 表示说话双方都了解的或上文提到过的人或事

Would you mind opening the door?

4 用于乐器前面

play the violin, play the guitar

5 表示“一家人”或“夫妇”

the Greens, the Wangs

7 用于序数词和形容词副词比较级最高级前

He is the taller of the two children.

8 用于国家党派名词前

the United States, , the French

9 在逢十的复数数词之前,指世纪的某个年代

in the 1990’s

10 用于方位名词,身体部位名词,及表示时间的词组前 He patted me on the shoulder.

三.代词:

I. 代词可以分为以下七大类:

人 称 主格 1
代词 宾格

I, you, he, she, it, we, you, they me, you, him, her, it, us, you, them

物 主 形容词性 2
代词 名词性
3 反身代词 4 指示代词 5 疑问代词 6 关系代词

my, your, his, her, its, our, their mine, yours, his, hers, its, ours, theirs myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself, ourselves, yourselves, themselves this, that, these, those, such, some who, whom, whose, which, what, whoever, whichever, whatever that, which, who, whom, whose, as

7 不定代词 四.形容词和副词

one/ some/ any, each/ every, none/ no, many/ much, few/ little/ a few/ a little, other/ another, all/ both, neither/ either

I. 形容词: 1. 形容词的位置: 1) 形容词作定语通常前置,但在下列情况后置: 1 修饰 some, any, every, no 和 body, thing, one 等构成的复合不定代词时 2 以-able, -ible 结尾的形容词可置于有最高级或 only 修饰的名词之后 3 alive, alike, awake, aware, asleep 等可以后置 4 和空间、时间、单位连用时 5 成对的形容词可以后置 6 形容词短语一般后置 II. 副词 副词的分类:

nobody absent, everything possible the best book available, the only solution possible the only person awake a bridge 50 meters long a huge room simple and beautiful a man difficult to get on with

1 时间副词 soon, now, early, finally, once, recently 5 频度副词 always, often, frequently, seldom, never

2 地点副词 here, nearby, outside, upwards, above 6 疑问副词 how, where, when, why

3 方式副词

hard, well, fast, slowly, excitedly, really 7 连接副词

how, when, where, why, whether, however, meanwhile

4 程度副词 almost, nearly, very, fairly, quite, rather 8 关系副词 when, where, why

III. 形容词和副词比较等级: 形容词和副词的比较等级分为原级,比较级和最高级。比较级和最高级的构成一般是在形容词和副词后加-er 和-est,多音 节和一些双音节词前加 more 和 most。

1 可以修饰比较级的词有:much, many, a lot, even, far, a bit, a little, any,。 2. 表示一方随另一方变化时用“the more…the more…”句型。如:The harder you work, the more progress you will make. 3 用比较级来表达最高级的意思。如:I have never spent a more worrying day.

4. 表示倍数的比较级有如下几种句型:

Our school is three times larger than yours./Our school is four times as large as yours./Our school is four times the size of yours. 5. 表示“最高程度“的形容词没有最高级和比较级。如:favourite, excellent, extreme, perfect。

五.介词

常见介词有 in、on、at 、since、 from、 after、to 、besides、except 等,同学们在日常学习中应留心。 六.动词

I. 动词的时态:

1. 动词的时态一共有 16 种,以 ask 为例,将其各种时态的构成形式列表如下:

现在时

过去时

将来时

过去将来时

一般

ask / asks

asked

shall/will ask

should/would ask

进行

am/is/are asking

was/were asking

shall/will be asking

should/would be asking

完成

have/has asked

had asked

shall/will have asked

should/would have asked

2. 现在完成时与一般过去时的区别: 1) 现在完成时表示过去发生的动作或存在的状况,但和现在有联系,强调的是对现在造成的影响或结果,它不能同表示

过去的时间状语连用,汉译英时可加“已经”等词。简言之,利用过去,说明现在。如:

I have already read the novel written by the world-famous writer. (已经看过,且了解这本书的内容) 2) 一般过去时只表示过去发生的动作或状态,和现在无关,它可和表示过去的时间状语连用,汉译英时可加“过”,“了”

等词。简言之,仅谈过去,不关现在。如:

I lived in Beijing for ten years.(只说明在北京住过十年,与现在无关) 3. 一般将来时的表达方式:

将来时

用法

例句

1 will/shall+动词原形

表示将来发生的动作或存在的状态

My sister will be ten next year.

2 be going to+动词原形

含有“打算,计划,即将”做某事,或表示很有可 It’s going to clear up.

能要发生某事

We’re going to have a party tonight.

be + doing 进行时表示 go, come, start, move, leave, arrive 等词可用进行时 He is moving to the south.

3

将来

表示按计划即将发生的动作

Are they leaving for Europe?

表示安排或计划中的马上就要发生的动作,后面一

4 be about to + 动词原形

I was about to leave when the bell rang.

般不跟时间状语

5 be to + 动词原形

表示按计划进行或征求对方意见

We’re to meet at the school gate at noon.

6 一般现在时表示将来

时刻表上或日程安排上早就定好的事情,可用一般

现在时表示将来

The meeting starts at five o’clock.

七.情态动词

II. 情态动词 must, may, might, could, can 表示推测: 以 must 为例。must + do(be)是推测现在存在的一般状态进行;must + be doing 推测可能正在进行的事情;must +have done

是推测可能已经发生过的事情。

1. must“肯定,一定”语气强,只用于肯定句中。

He must be a man from America. / He must be talking with his friend. / He must have already arrived there. 2. may 和 might“也许”,后者语气弱,更没有把握。可用于肯定句和否定句。

He may not be at home. / They might have finished their task. 3. can 和 could“可能”,could 表示可疑的可能性,不及 can’t 语气强,用于肯定、否定、疑问句中。
The weather in that city could be cold now..(推测某事本来可能发生,但实际上没有发生) Can he be in the office now? No, he can’t be there, for I saw him in the library just now.(语气很强,常用于疑问和否定句中) 八.非谓语动词

I. 非谓语动词的分类、意义及构成:

非谓语形式

时态和语态

构成

否定式 复合结构

特征和作用

不定式
现在 分 分词 词 过去
分词

to do to be doing to have done doing having done

to be done to have been done
being done having been done done

for sb. to do 具有名词,副词和形容词的作用
sth. 在句中做主、宾、定、表和状语

在非谓 语前加
not

具有副词和形容词的作用 在句中做定、表、宾补和状语

动名词

doing having done

being done having been done

sb’s doing

具有名词的作用 在句中做主、宾、定和表语

九.定语从句

I. 定语从句起了形容词的作用,在句中修饰一个名词或代词。被修饰的词叫做先行词,引导定语从句的词叫关系词,他

的作用一是放在先行词与定语从句中间起了连接作用,二是在从句中担当一个成分,并与先行词保持数的一致。

关系词

先行词 从句成分

例句

备注

who whom whose

人 人 人,物

主语 宾语 定语

Do you know the man who is talking with your mother? Mr. Smith is the person with whom I am working The boy whose father works abroad is my deskmate.

关 系 that 代词
which

人,物 物

主语,宾语 主语,宾语

A plane is a machine that can fly. She is the pop star (that) I want to see very much. The book (which) I gave you was worth $10. The picture which was about the accident was terrible.

He is such a person as is respected by all of us.

as

人,物 主语,宾语

This is the same pen as I lost yesterday.

关系 副词

when where why

时间 地点 原因

时间状语 地点状语 原因状语

I will never forget the day when we met there. This is the house where I was born. I can’t imagine the reason why he turned down my offer.

十.名词性从句

有主语从句、宾语从句、表语从句、同位语从句,这里仅探讨宾语从句和同位语从句。

whom, which 和 that 在从句中做宾 语时,常可以省 略,但介词提前时 后面关系代词不 能省略,也不可以 用 that as 做宾语一般不 省略 可用 on which 可用 in which 可用 for which

种类

作用

例句

宾语从句
同位语从 句

在复合句中做宾语,相当于名词 放 在 名 词 之 后 (news, problem, idea, suggestion, advice, thought, hope, fact 等) 表明其具体内容

He asked me which team could win the game.
You have no idea how worried we are. The fact that he lied again greatly surprised us.

十一。状语从句

种类

连接词

注意点

时间状语

when, whenever, while, as, before, after, until, till, by the time, as soon as, hardly…when, no sooner…than, the moment, the minute, immediately, directly, instantly

主句表示将来意义时,从句须用一般现在时;while 引导的从句中动词一般是延续性的;until 用在肯定 句中主句动词是延续性的,而否定句中主句动词为 短暂性的。

地点状语 where, wherever 原因状语 because, as, since, now that 条件状语 if, unless, once, in case, as long as, on condition that 目的状语 so that, in order that, for fear that 结果状语 so…that, such…that

because 语气最强,since 较弱,表示大家都明了的 原因,as 又次之。 从句中动词时态不可用将来时,常用一般时代替 so that 和 in order that 后常接 may, should, could, would 等情态动词

though, although, even if, even though, as, no matter what,

让步状语

whatever, no matter who, whoever, no matter which, whichever, no matter how, however, no matter when,

whenever

十二。倒装句

as 在让步状语从句中常用倒装形式;although 和 though 用正常语序,可和 yet 连用,但不可和 but 连用

种类

倒装条件

例句

完全 倒装

here, there, up, down, in, out, off, away 等副词开头的句子 表示强调 表示地点的介词短语作状语位于句首 never, hardly, seldom, little, not until, not 等表示否定意义 的副词放于句首

Out rushed the children. Under the tree stood two tables and four chairs. Hardly did I know what had happened.

部分 only 和修饰的状语放于句首 倒装 not only…but also 连接并列的句子,前倒后不倒
as 引导的让步状语 用于表示祝愿的祈使句中 十三。虚拟语气

Only then did he realize the importance of English. Not only does he know French, but also he is expert at it. Child as he is, he has learned a lot. May you be in good health!

类别

用法

例句

与现在事实相反 If 引导的条
与过去事实相反 件从句
与将来事实相反

从句动词:过去式(be 用 were) 主句动词:should/would/could/might+动词原形 从句动词:had+过去分词 主句动词:should/would/could/might+have+过去分词 从句动词:过去式 / should+动词原形 / were+不定式 主句动词:should/would/could/might+动词原形

If he were here, he would help us. If I had been free, I would have visited you. If it should rain tomorrow, we would not go camping.

其它状语从 句

as if 引导的状语从句中动词用过去式或过去完成式
in order that / so that 引导的状语从句中动词用 can / could / may / might / would 等+动词原形

They are talking as if they had been friends for years. Turn on the light so that we can see it clearly.

宾语从句

demand, suggest, order, insist 后接的从句中动词为 should+动词原形
wish 后的从句中分别用过去式,过去完成式和 should/would+动词原形表示 与现在,过去和将来情况相反

He suggested that we not change our mind.
I wish I could be a pop singer.

其它句型中 It is time that…句型中动词用过去式或 should+动词原形

It’s high time that we left.

would rather 所接的从句中动词用过去式或者过去完成式 If only 句型中动词常用过去式或者过去完成式,表示强烈的愿望

I would rather you stayed at home now. If only our dream had come true!


相关文档

初中英语语法总结(从句)_
初中 语法总结
初中英语语法总结
初中英语语法知识总结.
初中英语语法总结及练习
初中英语语法复习总结
初中英语语法总结(完全)
初中语法复习总结。
初中英语语法----数词总结
电脑版