吉林省吉林市第一中学校高中英语 Unit2 Working the land Section II Learning about the language练习
Section II Learning about the language
一、课前预习 I. 重点短语 1. 在过去的十年里 __________________________ 2. 使某人困惑 __________________________ 3. 后悔做某事 __________________________ 4. 遗憾要做某事 ___________________________ 5. 试验 ___________________________ II. 完成句子：用上面的短语完成下列句子。 1. T he method seems good but it needs _____________________. 这个方法似乎不错，但需要试验一下。 2. They asked so many questions that they _____________________. 他们问了我许许多多的问题，把我弄糊涂了。 3. Great changes have taken place in the neighborhood _____________________. 过去十年里小区发生了巨大的变化。 4. We _____________________ that we won't be able to attend the ceremony. 我们遗憾地通知你们,我们不能参加这一典礼。 5. I now _____________________ that I would join in the scheme. 我现在还后悔答应参加该计划的事。 二、语法突破：动名词作主语和宾语 (一) 动名词作主语 1. 动名词作主语表示抽象笼统的一般行为或表示经常性、习惯性的动作 Smoking is bad for health. 吸烟有害健康。? Talking mends no holes. 空谈无济于事。? 2. 动名词作主语常放在句首，在特定句子结构中可放在句尾。如： It is fun/useless/no use/no good/no pleasure/a waste of time? + doing sth. It is no use crying over the spilt milk. 覆水难收。 It is useless telephoning him. He is not willing to come. 给他打电话没用。他不 愿意来。 There is no saying when it will stop raining. 无法断定这场雨什么时候会停。 There is no joking about such matters. 这种事开不得玩笑。 3. 主语和表语的对称 Teaching is learning.=To teach is to learn. 教即是学习。 Seeing is believing.= To see is to believe. 百闻不如一见。 注意：不定式作主语往往表示具体的特别是将来的动作。 To finish the job in two days is impossible. 两天之内完成这项工作是不可能的。 （二）动名词作宾语 ⒈ 有些及物动词后面只能接 doing 作宾语，不能接不定式，常见的有： admit 承认/avoid 避免/appreciate 感激,赞赏/consider 考虑/delay 耽误/deny 否认 /dislike 不喜欢/escape 避免/ enjoy 喜欢/ keep 反复/forgive 原谅/ finish 完成 /imagine 想象/mention 提到/ mind 介意/ miss 错过/ practise 练习/risk 冒险/resist 抵抗/ suggest 建议/ understand 理解/ be busy 忙于 /be worth(值得 )/feel like(喜 欢，想要 )/keep on( 继续 )
Will you admit having broken the window? 你会承认打破玻璃这件事吗？ He doesn’t mind being misunderstood. 他不介意被误解。 注意：有些动词后面只能跟 to do 作宾语，不能接动名词，常见的有： aim/afford/agree/attempt/bother/choose/determine/desire/decide/demand/expect/ fail/happen/ hope/wish/long/manage/offer/refuse/plan/pretend/promise/tend/would(should)lik e/would love I don’t wish to be disturbed in my work. 我不希望在工作时被打扰。 He pretended not to notice me. 他假装没注意到我。 2.有些动词后面既可接动名词又可接不定式作宾语，但意义不同。 ⑴mean to do sth. 打算做某事 mean doing 意味着 ⑵stop to do sth.停下来去做某事 stop doing sth. 停止做某事 ⑶go on to do sth.(做完一件事之后)接着做(另一件事) go on doing sth.继续做某事 ⑷try to do sth. 试图做某事 try d oing sth.试试做某事（往往表示某种方法或方式） ⑸forget/regret/remember 接 to do 表示尚未发生的动作，接 doing 表示已经发生动作。 ⑹can’t help（to）do sth. 不能帮助做某事 can’t help doing sth.禁不住做?? ⑺need, require, want + doing / to be done 需要(被??) I forgot to write h im a letter. 我忘了要给他写信。 I forgot writing him a letter. 我忘了已给他写过信了。 3. 动词-ing 形式既可作及物动词的宾语，也可作介词的宾语 What prevented you from joining us last night? 昨天晚上什么事使你不能和我们在一起？ We like his way of teaching English. 我们喜欢他教英语的方式。 I have no difficulty in communicating with foreigners. 我在和外国人交谈方面没有什么困难。 注意：to 既可以是介词，也可以是不定式符号。若是不定式符号，to 后接动词原形；若 是介词，to 后需接动词-ing 形式 You must get used to washing your face with cold water. 你必须习惯用冷水洗脸。 He is looking forward to seeing you this summer vacation. 他盼望今年暑假见到 你 常见的带介词 to 的短语： be accustomed/used to 习惯于, be opposed to=object to 反对, devote?to/ be devoted to 献身于, stick to 坚持, get down to 着手做, lead to 导致, look forward to 盼望, pay attention to 注意, be addicted to 痴迷于 （三）动名词的复合结构 动名词的复合结构有四种形式： ① one’s +动名词 ②名词’s+动名词 ③代词宾格+动名词 ④名词+动名词 动名词的复合结构可在句中作主语、宾语或表语。作主语时，不能用③、④两种形式。 动名词的复合结构，实际上是给动名词加了一个逻辑主语。如：? His/Jack’s not getting to the station on time made all of us worried.? 他/杰克没准时到火车站使得我们大家都很担心。? Do you mind my/me/Jack’s/Jack leaving now?
你介意我/杰克现在离开吗？ He insisted on his son/his son’s being sent to work in the countryside. 他坚持要儿子被派到乡下工作。? What worried him most is his/him not being allowed to visit his sick mother. 他最忧虑的是不被允许去探望生病的妈妈。
1. He was in low spirits and even consider _____ (go) away. 2. Practise _____ (put) your hand to the ground. 3. I can’t help ______(have) the trip to Britain. 4. Don’t tell me you always escape _____(fine) because you have a fast sports car. 5. They built the b anks to prevent the area from ______(flood). 6. He didn’t fe el like _____(work), so he suggested _____(spend) the day in the garden. 7. Can you imagine ______(leave) standing outside for a whole night. 8. I regret ______(tell) you that his father’s ______(fal l) ill makes him unable to come. 9. We appreciate your ______(want) ______(help) us in our difficulties.10.The law forbids ______(sell) liquor to children. 三、课后自测 （一）基础知识自测 I. 单词拼写 1. "What ________ (国籍) are you?" "I'm Chinese." 2. The Japanese ________(占领) of Taiwan lasted fifty-one years. 3. A child's ________ (性格) is fixed in the first five years of life. 4. Some Asian students get ________ ( 困惑) and think that he is perhaps not a good teacher. 5. He ________ (遗憾) that he had left without saying goodbye to them. II．单项选择 1. I won’t go to his birthday without _____. A. inviting B. being invited C. invited D. to be invited 2. —Robert is indeed a wise man. —Oh, yes. How often I have regretted _____ his advice! A. to take B. taking C. not to take D. not taking 3. —Can I smoke here ? —Sorry. We don’t allow _____ here. A. people smoking B. people smoke C. to smoke D. smoking 4. Susan wanted to be independent of her parents. She tried _____alone, but she didn’t like it and moved back home. A. living B. to live C. to be living D. having lived 5. As a new driver, I have to practise _____ the car in my small garage again and again. A. parking B. to park C. parked D. park
6. I had great difficulty _____the suitable food on the menu in that restaurant. A. find B. found C. to find D. finding 7. That is the only way we can imagine_____ the overuse of water in students' bathrooms. A. reducing B. to reduce C. reduced D. reduce 8. As a result of the serious flood, two-thirds of the buildings in the area _____. A. need repairing B. needs to repair C. needs repairing D. need to repair 9. At the beginning of class, the noise of desks _____ could be heard outside the classroom. A. opened and closed B. to be opened and closed C. being opened and closed D. to open and close 10. —Do you mind _____ alone at home? —No, but I want a good book _____. A. leaving; to read B. to be left; reading C. to leave; reading D. being left; to read （二）能力提升自测 1. Your education will _____ you to earn a good living. Work hard from now on. A. associate B. equip C. relate D. feed 2. Some of you may have finished unit one. _____, you can go on to unit two. A. If you may B. If you do C. If not D. If so 3. There is still much to discuss. We shall, _____, return to this item at our next meeting. A. however B. otherwise C. therefore D besides 4. Something as simple as _____ some cold water may clear your mind and relive pressure. A. to drink B. drinking C. to be drinking D. drunk 5. — Do you mind if I smoke here, madam? — ______, sir. A. Of course not. It’s not allowed here B. Great! I’d rather do that myself C. I’d rather you didn’t, actually D. No, you can’t 6. Young man, if you hurry up, I think quite that you will catch the next train. A. that; probably B. this; certainly C. it; likely D. you; nearly 7. The government tried it’s best to _____ the people’s needs, but the people were still not _____. In fact, what the government did was not _____. A. satisfy; satisfied; satisfying B. satisfy; satisfying; satisfied C satisfied; satisfied; satisfying D. satisfying; satisfied;
satisfied 8. People are _____ about the _____ problem and have no idea how to solve it. A. confusing; confusing B. confused; confused C. confused; confusing D. confusing; confused 9. China has successfully sent up the Shenzhou Ⅶ spacecraft into space______ with complex devices of science and technology. A. to be equipped B. equipped C. equipping D. having been equipped 10. — They are quiet, aren’t they? — Yes. They are accustomed _____ at meals. A. to talk B. to not talk C. to talking D. to not talking 11.Bill suggested _____ a meeting on what to do for the Shanghai Expo during the vacation A. have held B. to hold C. holding D. hold 12. I hear they have promoted Tom, but he didn’t mention _____ when we talked on the phone. A. to promote B. to be promoted C. having promoted D. having been promoted 13. You can’t imagine what difficulty we had _____ home in his snowstorm. A. walked B. walk C. to walk D. walking 14. Dina, for months to find a job as a waitress, finally took a position at a local advertising agency. A. struggling B. struggled C. having struggled D. to struggle 15. I like this jacket better than that one, but it costs about three times ______. A. as much B. as many C. so much D. so many (三) 智能拓展训练 I. 阅读理解 A An apple a day may poison children. Children who eat an apple or a pear a day may be exceeding（超过）the pesticide （杀虫剂）safety limit because of remains on the fruit, according to research. Using data of the British Department of Environment on pesticides on fruit collected from supermarkets，scientists thought that each day som e children would get a poisonous level of pesticides. The research, published on Sunday, says the government repeatedly claims that the levels of pesticide are safe because, instead of measuring individual apples, researchers buy 10, crush them and take an average reading to see if they are safe. This is the internationally agreed method of checking remains. But government figures show that the pesticide is not average ly spread across the batch（一批）, and one or two apples could contain 90% or more of the pesticide in the batch.
It used mathematical modeling to measure exposure to pesticides for children aged between 18 months and four years old. The pesticides involved can destroy children’s hormones and some are suspected of causing cancer. The good news for British fruit growers is that samples（抽样）grown in this country had lower residue level than imported fruit, so buying home-produced fruit will reduce the danger, said Emily Diaman, one of the Earth’s senior food researchers and one of the authors of the report. 1. The reason why “An apple a day may poison children” is that __________. A. there are some harmful insects or worms in the apple B. children would get a poisonous level of pesticides because of the remains on the apple C. there are always more pesticides on the apples produced in Britain D. the apple is too hard for children to eat 2. According to the passage, the internationally agreed method of checking remains __________. A. tells exactly the pesticide level of each apple B. works well only with British fruits C. can’t tell whether a specific apple is safe to eat or not D. used mathematical modeling to measure exposure to pesticides for children. 3. The underlined word “residue” can be replaced by __________. A. rema ins B. pesticide C. poison D. medicine 4. Which of the following is NOT true？ A. The remains of the pesticides can do harm to the children’s health. B. The remains of the pesticides can do harm to the children’s hormones. C. Some remains of the pesticides are suspected of causing cancer. D. For safety, we’d better not eat apples from B ritain. II． 根据短文内容，从短文后的选项中选出能填入空白处的最佳选项。选项中有两项为多 余选项。 A major source of teen stress is school exams, and test anxiety is not uncommon. When you recognize your teen is under stress, how can parents help your teen stay calm before an exam? Be involved. Parents need to be involved in their teen’s work. _____ 1 _____ What they look for is your presence to talk, to cry, or simply to sit with them quietly. Communicate openly with your teen. Encourage your teen to express his worries and fears, but don’t let them focus on those fears. Help them get organized. _____2 _____ Together, you and yo ur teen can work out a time – table in which she can study for what she knows will be on the test. Provide a calm setting. Help your teen set up a quiet place to study and protect his privacy. Give them a nutritious diet. It’s important for your teen to eat a healthy, balanced died during exam times to focus and do her best. _____3 _____ If this happens, encourage your teen to eat light meals or sandwiches. A healthy diet, rather than junk food, is best for reducing stress. _____ 4 _____ Persuade your teenager to get some sleep or do something active when she needs a real break from studying. Making time for relaxation, fun, and
exercise are all important in reducing stress. Help your teen balance her time so that she will feel comfortable taking time out from studying to spend time with friends or rest. Show a positive attitude. _____ 5 _____ Your panic, anxiety and blame contribute to your teen’s pressure. Make your teen feel accepted and valued for her efforts. Most importantly, reassure your teen that things will be all right, no matter what the results are. A．A parent’s attitude will dictate their teen’s emotions. B．Exam stress can make some teens lose their appetite. C．They will only make the situation worse. D．Encourage your teen to relax. E．The best thing is simply to be there. F．Help your teen think about what she has to study and plan accordingly. G．Your teen may also make negative comments about themselves.
Section II Learning about the language 一、课前预习 I. 重点短语 1. in the past decade 2. confuse sb. 3. regret doing/having done sth. 4. regret to do sth. 5. try out II. 完成句子 1. to be tried out/ trying out 2. confused me 3. in/over the past decade 4. regret to tell you 5. regret promising/ having promised/ having made a promise 二、语法突破：
1. going 2. putting 3. having 4. being fined 5. being flooded 6. working; spending 7. leaving 8. to tell; falling 9. wanting; to help 10. selling 三、课后自测 （一）基础知识自测 I. 单词拼写 1. nationality 2. occupation 3. personality 4. confused 5. regretted II．单项选择 1. B. 考查动名词的被动式。invite 做介词宾语，并和句子主语是被动关系，所以应使用 动名词的被动式。 2. D. 考查 regret 的用法。regret doing sth.后悔做过某事；regret to do sth.很遗憾 要做某事。由题干可知，要用 D 项表示“对没接受建议而感到后悔”。 3. A. 考查动名词的复合结构。allow 后应该加动名词作宾语，people 是动名词的逻辑主语， 和动名词一起构成动名词复合结构。 4. A. 考查 try to do 和 try doing 的辨析。try to do try 试图做某事；doing 尝试做某 事。句意：她试着一个人住，但不太喜欢所以又搬回家了。 5. A. 考查 practise 的固定用法。practise doing sth.练习做某事。 6. D. 考查固定短语。have trouble/difficulty (in) doing sth.在做??方面有困难。 7. B. 考查非谓语动词作定语。句意：这是我们能想到的唯一一个减少学生浴室过度用水的 方法。the only + n. + to do sth. 唯一做某事的人/物。 8. A. 考查主谓一致和固定用法。分数+ of+ 名词做主语时，谓语动词和名词保持一致，所 以此处应该用复数动词；need doing 相当于 need to be done，主动形式表示被动意义。 9. C. 考查动名词的复合结构。句意：上课之初，开关桌子的声音在教室外都能听到。根据 句意可知，desks being opened and closed 是动名词复合结构，在句中作介词 of 的宾 语。 10. D. 考查非谓语动词。句意：—你介意一个人被留在家里吗？—不介意。但我需要一本 好书来读。 第一个空 mind 后必须加动名词作宾语； 第二个空 to read 作 book 的后置定语。 （二）能力提升自测 1. B. 考查动词词义辨析。 句意： 你所受的教育会使你过上富裕的生活。 从今后努力学习吧。 associate 使联合(系)；relate 适应，使相互关联；feed 喂养，向??提供；equip 使有 能力。 2. D. 考查省略句的用法。If so = If you have done that / so. 3. C. 考查副词的用法。however 不管怎样；otherwise 否则；therefore 所以；besides 除 此以外。根据句意判断，前后两句为因果关系，故 C 项正确。
4. B. 考查非谓语动词的用法。表示比较的 as simple as 中的第二个 as 是介词，故其后只 能接一个名词、代词或名词性从句，故选 B 项。 5. C. 考查情景交际。表示介意：You’d better not. / I’d rather you didn’ t. /I do mind, actually 等。表示不介意： Of course not. / Absolutely not. / Not at all 等。 6. C. 考查 it 作形式宾语。在句中 it 是形式宾语，likely 是形容词作宾语补足语，that 引导的从句是真正的宾语。 7. A. 考查 satisfy 的动词及其形容词用法。try one’s best to sat isfy one’s needs 尽力满足某人的需求；satisfied 感到满意的，表示情感状态; satisfying 令人满意的， 表示性质特征。 8. C. 考查 confused 和 confusing 的差别。 confused 感到困惑的， 表示情感状态; confusing 令人困惑的，表示性质特征。 9. B. 考查动词固定用法。 句意： 中国已经成功地把装配有复杂科技设备的神七送入了太空。 根据句意可知，equipped with?作定语相当于定语从句 which is equipped with（装配 有）?修饰 the Shenzhou Ⅶ spacecraft。 10. D. 考查固定搭配。be accustomed to (not) sth/ doing sth 习惯于（不）做某事。 11. C. 考查 suggest 的固定用法。suggest doing 建议做某事。 12. D. 考查 mention 的固定用法。 mention 后加动名词表示提到做过某事； promote （提职） 与句子主语是被动关系，故选择 D。 13. D. 考查固定短语。have difficulty (in) doing sth.在做??方面有困难。 14. C. 考查非谓语动词。此空分词短语作时间状语，其逻辑主语 Dina 与 struggle 为主动 关系， 故排除 B 项。 由句中的 finally 可知非谓语动词表示的动作发生在句中谓语 took a position 之前，故用现在分词的完成主动式。 15. A. 考查倍数表达法。句意：我喜欢这个夹克胜过那个， 但它的价钱几乎是那个价钱的 三倍。倍数表达法：倍数+as? as?; 倍数+ 比较级+ than?; 倍数+ the + n.+ of?。 此处是第一种表达法的省略形式，完整的答案是：as much as that one. (三) 智能拓展训练 I. 阅读理解 1. B. 细节理解题。根据文章第二段可知：有的孩子吃的苹果或梨上残留的杀虫剂可能超过 安全指标。因此可能会使吃水果的孩子中毒。 2. C. 推理判断题。根据文章第四、五段可知：国际统一的杀虫剂测定方法只是测试水果杀 虫剂含量的平均值。 而杀虫剂不是平均在每一批水果上， 一个苹果上的杀虫剂含量可能占 整批水果的 90%还多。因此，可以得出结论国际统一的杀虫剂测定方法也不能判断一个特 定的苹果是否可以安全食用。 3. A. 猜测词义题。文章提到来自英国种植者的好消息是：国内产品抽样的杀虫剂残留 （remains）远低于进口产品。 4. D. 推理判断题。D 项说法过于绝对化。 II．1—5 EFBDA