2019-2020年高考英语一轮复习第二部分重点语法突破专题二无提示词填空第七讲特殊句式讲义新人教版

2019-2020 年高考英语一轮复习第二部分重点语法突破专题二无提示词填 空第七讲特殊句式讲义新人教版
1.[xx·天津高考]It was when I got back to my apartment________ I first came across my new neighbors.
答案:that 此处为强调句型 It's ... that ...。强调时间状语。句意:在我回到公 寓时, 我第一次遇见了我的新邻居们。
2.[xx·江苏高考]________(be) it not for the support of the teachers, the student could not overe her difficulty.
答案:Were 结合句式结构和语义可判断此处为虚拟语气的倒装。该句是省略 if 的虚拟 条件句, if 省略后需要将 were 提前构成倒装, 故填 Were。句意:要不是老师们的支持, 这个学生不可能克服困难。
3.[xx·上海高考]It is only too much stress ________ does you harm. 答案:that 此句为强调句型,强调主语。句意:只有太大的压力才会对你造成伤害。 4.[xx·江苏高考]Not until recently ________ they encourage the development of tourist?related activities in the rural areas. 答案:did not until 位于句首时,句子需用部分倒装结构,此处指过去所发生的动作, 需用一般过去时,故答案为 did。句意:直到近期,他们才开始鼓励农村地区发展与旅游有 关的活动。 5.[xx·天津高考]You are waiting at a wrong place. It is at the hotel ________ the coach picks up tourists. 答案:that 此处为强调句型 It is ... that ... 。被强调部分为 at the hotel,故 设空处填 that。句意:你等错地方了。长途客车是在宾馆接游客。
6.[xx·北京高考]If________(accept) for the job, you'll be informed soon. 答案:accepted 条件状语从句的主语为 you, accept 和 you 为逻辑上的动宾关系,需 要用过去分词形式。当状语从句的主语和主句的主语一致,且从句谓语部分有 be 动词时,状 语从句的主语和 be 动词可以省略,补充完整为 If you are accepted for the job。故答案 为 accepted。 7.[xx·湖南高考]________ after talking to two students did I discover that having strong motivation is one of the biggest factors in reaching goals. 答案:Only 根据 did I discover 且句子为陈述句可判断,此句为倒装句。结合语义, 此处表达“只有……才……”,且“only+状语”位于句首时,引出部分倒装,故答案是 only,注意首字母大写。 8.[xx·江苏高考]It might have saved me some trouble ________ I known the schedule. 答案:had 根据句子结构分析,两个句子中无连词,且 I 后的 known 为过去分词,可判 断为省去 if 的虚拟条件从句引出部分倒装的情况。主句表述与过去事实相反的情况,从句应 为过去完成时,故填 had。 9.[xx·重庆高考]Bach died in 1750, but it was not until the early 19th century

________ his musical gift was fully recognized. 答案:that 第二个分句是强调句型,被强调部分是时间状语,故填 that。 10.[xx·湖南高考]Always ________ in mind that your main task is to get his pany
running smoothly. 答案:keep 句意:记住,你的主要任务是使他的公司运行顺利。keep in mind “记住”。
由句意及句首的 always 可判断此处为祈使句,故用动词原形。 ◆ Part Ⅱ 语篇真题演练
阅读下面短文,在空白处填入 1 个适当的单词或括号内单词的正确形式。 [xx·全国卷Ⅱ]If you feel stressed by responsibilities at work, you should take a step back and identify (识别) those of ___61___ (great) and less importance. Then, handle the most important tasks first so you'll feel a real sense of ___62___ (achieve). Leaving the less important things until tomorrow ___63___ (be) often acceptable. Most of us are more focused ___64___ our tasks in the morning than we are later in the day. So, get an early start and try to be as productive ___65___ possible before lunch. This will give you the confidence you need to get you through the afternoon and go home feeling acplished. Recent ___66___ (study) show that we are far more productive at work if we take short breaks ___67___ (regular). Give your body and brain a rest by stepping outside for ___68___ while, exercising, or doing something you enjoy. If you find something you love doing outside of the office, you'll be less likely ___69___ (bring) your work home. It could be anything—gardening, cooking, music, sports—but whatever it is, ___70___ (make) sure it's a relief from daily stress rather than another thing to worry about. 61._______ 62._______ 63._______ 64._______ 65._______ 66._______ 67._______ 68._______ 69._______ 70._______ Step 1:通读全文,掌握主旨大意。 本文是一篇说明文。讲述的是缓解工作中的压力的一些方法。 Step 2:逐题解答,确定答案。 61.greater 考查形容词的比较级。根据语境及下文的 and less importance 可知,此 处应填形容词的比较级。 62.achievement 考查词性转换。介词后面应填名词。意为“实现,完成”时, achievement 是不可数名词。a sense of achievement 固定短语,表示“成就感”。 63.is 考查主谓一致与动词的时态。分析句子结构可知,该句子的主语是动名词短语, 并结合全文基本时态可知,此处应用一般现在时。故填 is。 64.on 考查介词。固定短语 be focused on “集中于……”。句意:我们中的大多数 人在早上的时候会比一天中的晚些时候更能集中精力于工作。 65.as 考查连词。固定结构 as ... as possible,意为“尽可能……”。句意:因此, 早点儿开始工作并且在午饭前要尽可能高效。

66.studies 考查名词的复数。根据主谓一致原则,谓语动词 show 为复数形式,故主 语为复数名词。
67.regularly 考查词性转换。此处用副词修饰动词短语 take short breaks。 68.a 考查冠词。固定短语 for a while,意为“一会儿”。 69.to_bring 考查非谓语动词。固定短语 be likely to do sth.,意为“可能做某事”。 70.make 考查祈使句。分析句子结构可知,but 连接两个并列分句。在第二个分句中, whatever 引导让步状语从句,其后为祈使句充当主句。 Step 3:代入验证。 需保证语法结构正确且语义符合逻辑,这样才能确保万无一失。

考生在特殊句式部分

的学习中存在着以下

几点问题:(1)考生对

知识 清单

(1)倒装句的各种情 况:①全部倒装;② 部分倒装;(2)强调句 型的灵活性及考查方 式的多样性;(3)各种 不同的省略;(4)祈使 句+and/or+陈述 句;(5)几种不同结构 的感叹句型。

学情 分析

该部分的内容主要是 识记比较困难,死记 硬背,灵活运用能力 不强;(2)缺乏总结归 纳能力,该专题内容 繁多,应该在识记的 前提下,对所学知识 进行归纳总结,使其 有一些规律可循;(3) 缺乏分析能力,在相

似的句式中考生容易

迷失方向而全凭感觉

去解题。

考点 1 倒装句

1 全部倒装

(1)表示地点或方位的副词或介词短语,如:here, there, now, then, up, down, in, away,

off, out, on the wall, under the tree 等置于句首,且主语是名词时。

①John opened the door.There stood a girl he had never seen before.

约翰打开门,那儿站着一位他从来没见过的女孩。

②Just in front of the bus lies an injured man, all covered with blood.

公共汽车的前面躺着一个受伤的人,浑身是血。

(2)代词 such 放在句首,且在句中作表语时。

Such are the facts; no one can deny them.

这些就是事实;没有人可以否认。

(3)为平衡句子结构或使上下文衔接紧密,常将作表语的形容词、副词、分词或介词短语 提到句首,引起全部倒装。
①Seated in the first row are some workers. 坐在第一排的是一些工人。 ②Present at the meeting were some scientists from China. 出席会议的是一些来自中国的科学家。 注意:上述情况中,若主语是人称代词,则不用倒装。 ③Away they went. 他们走了。 [典题 1] [xx·温州十校联考]Tomorrow we'll pay a visit to a museum, next to which ________ (be) two nice restaurants where we can have Italian food. [答案] are 表示地点或方位的副词或介词短语位于句首且主语为名词,使用全部倒 装,此时谓语在主语之前,且主语为复数名词,故填 are。 [典题 2] [xx·浙江宁波模拟]Look, ________ (hang) on the back wall of the hall are paintings by us students. [答案] hanging 在英语中分词短语位于句首时,应用全部倒装。正常语序句子为: Paintings by us students are hanging on the back wall of the hall. 2 部分倒装 (1)so/neither/nor+be 动词/助动词/情态动词+主语(表示前一句中的内容也适合另 一人或另一事物) ①If Joe's wife won't go to the party, neither will he. 如果乔伊的妻子不参加晚会,他也不去。 ②She has been to New York. So have I. 她去过纽约,我也去过。 注意:so 表示“是的,确实”时,主谓语不倒装。 —It is too hot. —So it is. ——天太热了。 ——是啊,的确很热。 (2)表示否定意义的副词、连词或短语置于句首时 此类词有 not, never, hardly, seldom, scarcely, barely, little, no, nowhere, not only, not until, at no time, by no means, in no way 等。 ①Not a single song did she sing at yesterday's party. 在昨天的晚会上她一首歌也没有唱。 ②At no time will China be the first to use the nuclear weapon. 在任何情况下中国决不会第一个使用核武器。 (3)在 so/such ... that ... 句型中,若 so/such ... 提到句首时 In such a hurry did he leave the office that he forgot to lock the door. 他离开办公室时太匆忙了,结果忘了锁门。

(4)当“only+状语(副词、介词短语或从句)”置于句首时 Only after my friend came was the puter repaired. 只有在我朋友来了之后,电脑才修好。 (5)表语、状语或动词原形+as/though+主语+其他时,句子要倒装 ①Much as I like it, I'll not buy it. 尽管我很喜欢它,但我不会买。 ②Pretty as she is, she is not proud. 尽管她很漂亮,但她一点也不自负。 ③Try as he would, he might fail again. 尽管他还会试,但可能还会失败。 (6)hardly/scarcely ... when ..., no sooner ... than ..., not only ... but also ... 等引导两个句子时,前一个句子用部分倒装,后一个句子不变。 ①Hardly/Scarcely had he heard the news when he began to cry. 他一听到这个消息就开始哭了。 ②The puter was used in teaching. As a result, not only was teachers' energy saved, but students became more interested in the lessons. 电脑被应用于教学中,结果,不仅节省了老师的精力,学生也对上课更感兴趣了。 (7)在省略 if 的虚拟条件句中(当条件从句中有 were,had, should 时) ①Had you reviewed your lessons, you might have passed the examination. 要是早复习了功课,你有可能就通过考试了。 ②Should it not rain, we would go for a picnic tomorrow. 要是明天不下雨,我们就可以去野餐了。 [典题 3] [xx·四川雅安中学月考]From the picture we know, ________ happy do the children feel that they are wild with joy. [答案] so 根据句中的 that 从句和句意可知,该题为 so ... that 句式,并将 so 部 分置于句首引出的倒装。句意:从图片中我们可知,孩子们感到很快乐以至于他们都要乐疯 了。 [典题 4] Absurd ________ it might sound, everyone present was amused by his adventure story in Africa. [答案] as/though 此处表述尽管那听起来很荒诞,另结合 as/though 引导让步状语从 句时形成的倒装结构“形容词+as/though+主语+谓语”可确定答案。 [典题 5] If we attach too much importance to money, we cannot find the real meaning of life, and nor _______ we find pleasure in life. [答案] can 否定词位于句首时,应用部分倒装,其结构为“nor+助/系/情态动词+ 主语”,其中助/系/情态动词取决于前一分句。结合句意填 can。
考点 2 强调句 1 强调句的基本句型是“It is/was+被强调的部分+that/who+其他部分”。被强调的 部分可以是主语、宾语或状语 It is not how much we do but how much love we put into what we do that benefits

our work most. 给我们工作带来最大益处的不是我们做了多少而是我们将多少爱投入到我们所做的事情
中。 2 强调句的特殊句式
3 用助动词强调谓语 如果要强调时态为一般现在时或一般过去时的肯定句中的谓语动词,我们在该动词前加 助动词 do, does 或 did。 ①Many of the films are from the USA, but we do give awards to films from other countries. 许多电影来自于美国,但我们的确也给其他国家的影片颁奖。 ②He did e to see you last Sunday, but you were out. 他上周日的确来看过你,但是你出去了。 [典题 6] [xx·四川资阳诊断]It is always the firefighters ________ take the lead to run to the very center, saving lives by risking their own. [答案] that/who 分析句子结构可知,该句是强调句型,被强调的是句子主语,且指 人。故填 that/who 均可。

[典题 7] It was not until we had stayed together for a couple of weeks ________ I found we had a lot in mon.
[答案] that 本句为强调句型。被强调的内容是 not until 引导的时间状语从句。句 意:直到我们在一起待了几周后,我才发现我们之间有很多共同之处。
考点 3 省略句 1 在 when, while, whenever, till, as soon as, if, unless, as if, though, as 等引导的状语从句中,若谓语部分含有 be 动词,而主语又与主句主语相同或主语是 it 时, 从句的主语和 be 动词常被省略 The experiment shows that proper amounts of exercise, if (it is) carried out regularly, can improve our health. 实验表明,如果有规律地进行适量运动能强身健体。 2I'm afraid, I think, I believe, I hope, I guess 等作答句,后面可仅跟 so 与 not, 分别表示肯定或否定意义,代替宾语从句 ①—Do you think it will rain? —I hope not (that it will not rain). ——你认为会下雨吗? ——我希望不下。 ②—Do you believe our team will win? —I guess so(our team will win). ——你相信我们队会赢吗? ——我猜会赢。 3 不定式省略,单独使用不定式符号 to (1)用来代替动词不定式后被省略的动词,常用在 be afraid/glad/happy, expect, forget, hope, intend, like, love, mean, prefer, refuse, seem, try, want, wish 等 的后边。 ①I asked him to see the film, but he didn't want to. 我请他去看电影,但他不想去。 ②—Will you join in the game? —I'd be glad to. ——你愿意加入游戏吗? ——我很高兴加入。 (2)如果不定式中含有 be, have, have been,通常保留 be, have 和 have been。 —Are you a sailor? —No, but I used to be. ——你是海员吗? ——不,但我过去是。 [典题 8] [xx·江苏如东中学期中] The pipes have oil or water inside them, which is heated and sent to the storage tank until ________ (need) to produce electricity. [答案] needed 设空处表述“直到油或水被需要用来发电”,补充完整为“until oil

or water is needed to ... ”。连词 until 引导的从句中主语与主句主语相同,且谓语动 词含有 be 动词时,可省略“主语+be”,故填 needed。
考点 4 反意疑问句及其他 1 反意疑问句 (1)祈使句式的反意疑问句 ①肯定的祈使句,简短问句用 will you/won't you。 ②否定的祈使句,简短问句用 will you。 ③let's 和 let us 引导的祈使句:let's 表“建议、征询”之意时,含听话者在内,故 简短问句用 shall we;let us 表“建议、征询”之意时,不含听话者在内,故简短问句用 will you。 Let's go out for a walk after supper, shall we? 晚饭后我们散散步,好吗? (2)must 表示猜测时的反意疑问句 ①must be 是对现在的情况进行推测,按现在时的附加疑问句进行处理。 He must be honest, isn't he? 他肯定很诚实,不是吗? ②“must have done”用来推测过去的动作,强调对现在的影响。句中没有表示过去时 间的状语时,按现在完成时的附加疑问句来处理;如有明确的表过去的时间状语,按一般过 去时处理。 It must have rained last night, didn't it? 昨天晚上肯定下雨了,不是吗? He must have known the truth, hasn't he? 他肯定知道了真相,不是吗? (3)主从复合句中,反意疑问句应与主句的主谓语保持一致。 He left in a hurry because there was no time left, didn't he? 他匆忙离开了,因为没有时间了,不是吗? (4)当陈述部分是 I/We think/believe/expect/suppose 加从句时,反意疑问句应和从句 的人称和时态保持一致。 I don't think anyone can finish the experiment,can they? 我认为并非人人都能完成实验,对吗? 2 句型:祈使句+and/or/otherwise+简单句(多用将来时) (1)“祈使句/名词短语+and+简单句”表示“如果……,就……” ①“Only two centimeters higher , and you will break the world record , ” encouraged the coach. “仅再高两厘米,你将打破世界纪录,”教练鼓励说。 ②Bring the flowers into a warm room and they'll soon open. 将花放到暖和的房间里,它们将会很快开放。 (2)“祈使句+or/otherwise+简单句”表示“……,否则……” Don't drive so fast, or/otherwise you'll have an accident.

不要开那么快,否则你会出事的。 注意:“分词作状语结构+主句”与该句型容易弄混,关注有没有连词即可。 [典题 9] I don't think he is the right person to do that job, ________ he? [答案] is 在 think 后面跟宾语从句时的反意疑问句,若主句主语是第一人称,则按 从句的人称和时态来判断,且该句中含有否定转移,否定词 not 本应在从句中,被前移至主 句,故该题填 is。句意:我认为他并非做这份工作的合适人选,对吗? [典题 10] [xx·河南平顶山三模]One day after working in the garden after a while, Father said to his son, “Let's go fishing, ________ we?” [答案] shall 以 let's 提问的句子,表示“建议” ,包括说话人在内,故填 shall。 [典题 11] [xx·黑龙江大庆实验中学模拟]Put your cellphone somewhere that you can remember but not somewhere that you see while you are studying, ________it may disturb you studying. [答案] or/otherwise 句意:当你学习的时候,把你的手机放到你记得的地方,而不 是你看见它的地方,否则它会打扰你的学习。此句属于“祈使句+or/otherwise”的句型。 故填 or/otherwise。 [典题 12] A bit more effort, I think, ________ you will settle the problem. [答案] and 先把插入语 I think 去掉,则不难看出“A bit more effort”是表示条 件的名词短语,空格后为简单句,且表示顺承,故此处填 and。 3 感叹句
how+adj./adv.+主+谓!
??how+adj.+a?n?+n.?可数名词单数?+主+谓! ?what+a?n?+adj.+n.?可数名词单数?+主+谓! ??what+adj.+n.?可数名词复数/不可数名词?+主+谓!
①How interesting a story it is! 这是一个多有趣的故事啊! ②What fine weather it is today! 今天天气真好!
特殊句型结构在语法填空中主要考查对其掌握的熟练程度,所以我们要善于积累,牢记 特殊句型结构,答题时,注意各句型在具体语言环境中的运用。
NO.1 解题步骤 1.透过包含空格的句子,来判断考查的句型。 2.根据相关的知识点及需注意的要点来填充答案。 NO.2 解题技巧 1 考查倒装句时,考生注意主语与谓语即可,若直接颠倒过来,则考虑全部倒装;若助 动词提前,主谓紧挨着,通常考虑部分倒装。

2 在省略“主语+be”结构中,通常填写给出动词的正确形式,该类型题目主要判断句 子主语与考查动词之间的关系是主动还是被动,若主动一般填现在分词,若被动一般填过去 分词。
3 强调句型主要是与其他从句结合考查,去掉“It is/was ... that/who”,句子的语 法及语义仍完整和通顺的便是强调句型。
[典题 1] When we heard the exciting news, there was silence all over the hall at first. Then ________ (e) voices of shouting.
[答案] came 表示时间的副词 Then 置于句首,句子应全部倒装,并且根据前一句确定 时态为一般过去时。句意:当我们听到这激动人心的消息时,起初整个大厅一片寂静,然后 便是欢呼声。
[典题 2] [xx·甘肃兰州一中月考]It is Mary and James ________ are getting married and it is I who ________ (be) going to be their bridesmaid.
[答案] that/who; am 第一空为强调句型的构成,强调主语且为人时,可用 that/who; 第二空需注意强调句型强调主语时,谓语应采用的形式。当被强调部分是句子主语时,谓语 动词需与被强调部分的人称和数保持一致。
1.特殊句式种类颇多,但大部分为固定的句式结构,考生在复习时,只要熟练掌握基础 知识即可。
2.特殊句式在语法填空题中并不多见,考查点也比较固定,主要集中在强调句、倒装句 的重点结构中,所以考生无须担心。
建议用时:20 分钟 Part Ⅰ.单句语法填空 1.[xx·陕西渭南模拟]On the top of the hill ________ (stand) a temple ________ the old man once lived. 答案:stands; where 表示地点的介词短语置于句首,句子需全部倒装,主语是 a temple,故第一空中动词作谓语用第三人称单数;第二空前为名词,后为句子,判断设空处 引导定语从句修饰其前面的名词,先行词表地点,且从句中不缺主语和宾语,故填 where。 句意:山顶上有一座庙,庙里曾住着一位老人。 2.[xx·陕西咸阳模拟]In a word, success is important, ________ is failure, because it's the mother of success. 答案:so 表示上文所提情况也适用于另一件事/物,且用于肯定句,故应用 so 的倒装

句式。 3.[xx·陕西西工大附中模拟]Only ________ this way can we live in more fortable
and beautiful surroundings. 答案:in “only+状语”位于句首时,用倒装。句中 can 已经提前,因为要满足倒装
条件,only 后必须为状语且与 this way 构成搭配,因此需填 in。 4.[xx·银川九中模拟]—She suggested the number of cars should be limited to stop
air pollution. —Good________ it sounds, the idea is not very practical. 答案:as/though 此处表述“尽管听起来不错”。由 as/though 引导的让步状语从句需
把名词、形容词、副词或动词提到其前面引出倒装。 5.[xx·浙江温州模拟]It's not what you love in your life but ________ you have
in your life ________ matters. 答案:what; that 第一空为“not ... but ...”结构连接强调句型,强调的两个并列
主语,主语从句中缺少宾语,故用 what;第二空为强调句型中的 that。句意:在人生中不是 你喜欢什么重要,而是你人生中拥有什么重要。
6.[xx·北京朝阳区模拟]parison may make something appear more beautiful than it is when ________ (see) alone.
答案:seen 由连词 when 和其后所给出的动词可判断此处为省略句。其中 see 与被省略 的且与其主句相同的主语 something 之间为被动关系,故填 seen。句意:对比会使一些事物 看起来比单独被看时更美。
7.[xx·江苏扬州一中质检]Try hard ________ I might, I can attach no definite meaning to this rather grand sentence.
答案:as/though 分析句子结构可知,此处为 as/though 引导让步状语从句,动词提前 至句首引起倒装。句意:尽管我尽力去思索,我仍不能明白这个佳句的确切含义。
8.[xx·南昌重点学校联考]On the other side of harbor ________ (lie) another must?visit spot, the Taronge Park Zoo.
答案:lies 表示方位或地点的副词或介词短语位于句首时,句子需全部倒装,该句主 语为 another must?visit spot,单数名词,且本句描述一种客观事实,因此填 lies。
9.[xx·浙江宁波模拟]Little ________ we know that the region was rich in natural resources about four decades ago.
答案:did 分析句子结构,可以判断该题为否定副词位于句首而引起的部分倒装,结合 下文中的 was 可知,设空处应填助动词 did。句意:约四十年前我们几乎不知道这个区域有 丰富的自然资源。
10.[xx·石家庄二中模拟]We ________ need to learn from the other associations, including the Japanese, who do an excellent job on youth training.
答案:do 句意:我们的确需要向其他社团学习,包括日本人,他们在青年人训练方面 做得很好。此处强调谓语动词,由从句时态可判断填 do。
Part Ⅱ.单句改错 1.[xx·天水一中期末]If is possible, I'd like to stay with a family for a couple

of days in order that I can know customs in England. ________________________________________________________ 答案:去掉 is 或在 is 前加 it 根据句式分析可知,此处可看作省略句,省略了 it is。
也可以补充为完整式。 2.[xx·湖北襄阳模拟]Away had rushed a car from the direction of the square, when
I walked towards the store. ________________________________________________________ 答案:去掉 had 本句是一个以 away 开头的句子,构成了全部倒装。结合 when 从句中
的动词 walked,前后时态一致,故去掉 had。 3.[xx·贵州遵义联考]What embarrassed I felt at the moment! Such an experience
left a deep impression on me. ________________________________________________________ 答案:What→How 该句型为“how+adj./adv.+主+谓”,因此把 what 改为 how。what
引出的感叹句其后必须有被修饰的名词。 4.[xx·湖北五校模拟]Risky although the idea sounded, she didn't mind it because
it worked for her. ________________________________________________________ 答案:although→though/as 此处是一个让步状语从句的倒装,但是 although 不能构
成倒装,只能用 as/though。 5.[xx·黑龙江大庆中学模拟]Hardly did the summer vacation e when my classmates
tried very hard to get train tickets to go home. ________________________________________________________ 答案:did→had 此处是一个 hardly ... when ... 结构,这个结构中主句中使用过去
完成时,从句中使用一般过去时,表示“一……就……”的意义,故将 did 改为 had。 Part Ⅲ.语法填空 阅读下面短文,在空白处填入 1 个适当的单词或括号内单词的正确形式。 [xx· 山 东 淄 博 质 检 ]According to the data from population reports and the
statistics made by the World Bank, Japanese people in xx __1__ (live), on average, to 83 years old, and the country itself ranks __2__ the top five nations with the longest life expectancy (预期寿命).
__3__ major contributor to Japan's high life expectancy and overall health is their diet, as determined by the country's Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare.
According to a recent study __4__ (publish) by the BMJ, Japanese people __5__ kept on the traditional Japanese diet during the 15?year study had a mortality rate (死亡率) 15% lower than those who did not. Further, those who __6__ keep were also ___7___ (little) likely to suffer from some diseases.
Japan's Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare __8__ (break) the traditional Japanese diet down in their version of the food pyramid, called the “Japanese Food Guide Spinning Top”. Though the Japanese diet gives special __9__ (important) to

high intakes of fish and soybean products instead of fats, it is __10__ (general) a balance of grains, vegetables, fish and meat, and milk and fruits. However, the guide also includes snacks, sweets, cakes and alcoholic drinks, which can be consumed in control, rather than pletely rejected.
1.________ 2.________ 3.________ 4.________ 5.________ 6.________ 7.________ 8.________ 9.________ 10.________ 篇章导读:本文是一篇说明文。根据世界银行的统计数字,日本人的平均寿命在世界上 名列前五名,其原因在于日本的传统饮食对国民的健康发挥了重要作用。 1.lived 考查动词的时态。根据本句中的时间状语 in xx 可知此处需用一般过去时。 2.among/on 考查介词。rank 在这里为不及物动词,故设空处需为介词。among “在…… 之中”,或 on the top “在……之首”。 3.A 考查冠词。设空处后的 contributor 为可数名词,在本句中表示泛指,故与不定 冠词连用。 4.published 考查非谓语动词。被修饰词 study 与 publish 为逻辑上的被动关系且表 示完成,故用过去分词形式作定语。 5.who/that 考查定语从句的引导词。本句中“Japanese people had a mortality rate (死亡率) 15% lower than those ... ”为主句,“___5___ kept on the traditional Japanese diet during the 15?year study”为定语从句,先行词为 Japanese people,关系词在定语 从句中作主语,先行词指人。故答案为 who 或 that。 6.did 考查对谓语的强调。“who ___6___ keep”为定语从句,指那些确实坚持了这 个传统的人。由语义可知需对动词 keep 进行强调。根据上下文可知,该从句谓语动词应为一 般过去时,故设空处填 did。动词原形前加助动词表示强调。 7.less 考查副词的比较级。句意:此外,那些真正坚持日本传统饮食习惯的人们患一 些疾病的可能性也更小。根据上句中 lower than 可推知本空也需用比较级形式。 8.breaks 考查动词的时态和主谓一致。根据本段中的 gives (一般现在时),可推知 本空的时态也应该为一般现在时,主语“Japan's Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare” 为第三人称单数,故答案为 breaks。 9.importance 考查词性转换。此处需用名词形式作动词 gives 的宾语。 10.generally 考查词性转换。此处需用副词形式修饰谓语动词。
2019-2020 年高考英语一轮复习第二部分重点语法突破专题二无提示词填 空第二讲代词和介词短语讲义新人教版
1.[xx·天津高考]When you drive through the Redwood Forests in California, you will be________ trees that are over 1,000 years old.
答案:among be among “处于……之中”, 符合语境。句意: 当你开车穿过加州的 红木森林时, 你将会置身于树龄超过 1,000 年的古树中。

2 . [xx· 北 京 高 考 ]Many people who live along the coast make a living________fishing industry.
答案:in 此处用介词 in, 意为“在……方面”。make a living in fishing industry “在渔业方面谋生”。
3.[xx·江苏高考]Determining where we are in relation ________ our surroundings remains an essential skill for our survival.
答案:to in relation to “关于,涉及”。句意:确定我们所处的与周围环境相关 的位置仍然是我们的一种基本的生存技能。
4.[xx·浙江高考]That young man is honest, cooperative, always there when you need his help. ________ short, he's reliable.
答案:In 固定搭配 in short “简言之”。 5.[xx·浙江高考]The study suggests that the cultures we grow up ________ influence the basic processes by which we see the world around us. 答案:in “we grow up ________”为省略了关系代词 which/that 的定语从句,修饰 先行词 the cultures,将先行词代入定语从句后为:we grow up in the cultures,故设 空处填介词 in。 6.[xx·福建高考]The research group produced two reports based on the survey, but________ contained any useful suggestions. 答案:neither 此处应填代词作主语。根据题干中的 two reports 和 but 可知,此处 表示“两个中的任何一个都不”,所以填 neither。 7.[xx·陕西高考]The little pupil took his grandma________ the arm and walked her across the street. 答案:by take sb. by the arm “抓住某人的胳膊”。 8.[xx·重庆高考]The meeting will be held in September, but ________ knows the date for sure. 答案:nobody 根据结构可知,此处缺主语,结合语义及 but, for sure 两个关键信息 可以确定答案是 nobody。 9.[xx·浙江高考]In many ways, the education system in the US is not very different from ________ in the UK. 答案:that 首先可以将原句理解为:In many ways, the education system in the US is not very different from the_education_system in the UK. 代替特指的同类异物的 单数名词用 that。 10.[xx·天津高考]The quality of education in this small school is better than________ in some larger schools. 答案:that 根据句式结构和语义可知,此处代替的是前文出现的表示同类异物概念的 quality,为抽象名词,故用 that。
◆ Part Ⅱ 语篇真题演练 阅读下面短文,在空白处填入 1 个适当的单词或括号内单词的正确形式。 [xx·全国卷Ⅲ]In much of Asia, especially the so?called “rice bowl” cultures

of China, Japan, Korea, ___61___ Vietnam, food is usually eaten with chopsticks. Chopsticks are usually two long, thin pieces of wood or bamboo. They can also
be made of plastic, animal bone or metal. Sometimes chopsticks are quite artistic. Truly elegant chopsticks might ___62___ (make) of gold and silver with Chinese characters. Skilled workers also bine various hardwoods and metal ___63___ (create) special designs.
The Chinese have used chopsticks for five thousand years. People probably cooked their food in large pots, ___64___ (use) twigs (树枝) to remove it. Over time, ___65___ the population grew, people began cutting food into small pieces so it would cook more quickly. Food in small pieces could be eaten easily with twigs which ___66___ (gradual) turned into chopsticks.
Some people think that the great Chinese scholar Confucius, ___67___ lived from roughly 551 to 479 BC, influenced the ___68___ (develop) of chopsticks. Confucius believed knives would remind people of killings and ___69___ (be) too violent for use at the table.
Chopsticks are not used everywhere in Asia. In India, for example, most people traditionally eat ___70___ their hands.
61.________ 62.________ 63.________ 64.________ 65.________ 66.________ 67.________ 68.________ 69.________ 70.________ Step 1:通读全文,掌握主旨大意。 本文是一篇说明文。讲述的是筷子的材质和中国使用筷子的悠久历史及文化内涵。 Step 2:逐题解答,确定答案。 61.and 考查并列连词。分析句子结构及语境可知,Vietnam 与空前的“China, Japan, Korea”之间是并列关系。 62.be_made 考查动词的语态。此处指真正雅致的筷子可能是由金和银做成的。make 与句子主语 Truly elegant chopsticks 之间是被动关系,空格前有情态动词 might,故填 be made。 63.to_create 考查非谓语动词。根据句意可知,此处用 to do 形式表目的。 64.using 考查非谓语动词。use 与句子主语 People 之间是逻辑上的主谓关系,故应 用现在分词作状语,表方式。 65.as 或 when 考查状语从句。此处表述随着人口的增长或当人口增长时人们开始把 食物切成小片……。根据句意和句子结构可知,空格处用 as 或 when 引导时间状语从句。 66.gradually 考查词性转换。修饰动词应用副词。 67.who 考查定语从句的引导词。分析句子结构可知,空格处在此引导非限制性定语 从句,先行词为 Confucius(孔子),指人,故用关系代词 who。 68.development 考查词性转换。根据空格前的 the 及空格后的 of 可知,此处应填名 词。 69.were 考查动词的时态和主谓一致。根据句中的 believed 及 would 可知,此处描

述的是过去的情况。从句主语为 knives,谓语动词应用复数。 70.with 考查介词。此处指在印度大部分人用手吃饭。with “用,凭借”。 Step 3:代入验证。 需保证语法结构正确且语义符合逻辑,这样才能确保万无一失。

考生在代词和介词的

学习过程中存在的问

题如下:

(1)常见代词的基本

(1)对代词的基本功

用法;(2)易混不定代

能和用法掌握不扎

知识 清单

词的区别;(3)it 的 用法;(4)常见介词 (短语)的基本用法;

学情 分析

实;(2)在使用时,不 去判断所指代内容, 单凭语感解题;(3)

(5)常见介词固定搭

不能准确把握易混代

配。

词的用法特点;(4)

混乱使用介词及介词

短语,不能切实掌握

常见介词的特点。

考点 1 常见代词的基本用法

1 人称代词用来代替人或物,有人称、数和格的变化,其形式如下:

人称代词在句子中通常作主语和宾语。 2 物主代词:在句子中作定语修饰名词或代词的为形容词性物主代词;在句子中相当于 “形容词性物主代词+n.”的为名词性物主代词,通常在句子中作主语或宾语,如下表:

形容词性物主代词

my

our

your his her its their

名词性物主代词

mine ours yours his hers its theirs

注意:(1)形容词性物主代词只能用作定语,修饰名词,如:her father 她的父亲。

(2)“of(介词)+名词性物主代词(或名词所有格)”构成双重所有格,如:a friend of

my father's 我父亲的一位朋友。

[典题 1] [xx·山东济宁模拟]“Hongbao”seems to be on everyone's lips these

days. ________ (it) origins are rooted in history. [答案] Its 由空格后面的名词,可判断此处应填形容词或形容词性的词,提示词为
代词,故应填形容词性物主代词 its。 [典题 2] [xx·安徽淮南模拟]Scientists found five different basic ways of
tooth?brushing and decided all of ________ were incorrect. [答案] them 介词后应填名词/代词/v.?ing,并结合语境可知,此处指代 five
different basic ways,且作宾语,故填 them。 3 指示代词:this, that, these, those;其中 this, these 是时间或空间上的“近指”,
可与“here”连用;that, those 是时间或空间上的“远指”,可与“there”连用 4 反身代词

(1)反身代词在句中可用作宾语、表语、同位语等。

①You shouldn't leave the child by himself at home.

你不应把孩子独自留在家里。

②I am not myself today.

我今天不舒服。

③The thing itself is not important.

事情本身并不重要。

(2)常见的一些含反身代词的固定搭配:

by oneself

独自地

for oneself 亲自

enjoy oneself 玩得愉快

behave oneself 举止良好

seat oneself 坐下来

devote oneself to 投身于

e to oneself 苏醒过来

dress oneself 自己穿衣

help oneself to sth. 自取,自用;随意吃/用某物

[典题 3] [xx·辽宁沈阳二中模拟]In xx, Fabien created a Shark Submarine that

enabled him to put ________ (he) inside the Shark world.

[答案] himself 根据空格的位置可知,应填所给代词的相应形式作动词 put 的宾语。

结合语境可知,此处意为“使得他能够将自己置身于鲨鱼世界”。故填 he 的反身代词。

考点 2 易混不定代词的区别

1one, ones, the one, the ones, that, those, it 的区别
①The train was crowded so we decided to catch a later one. 这趟火车太挤了,所以我们决定乘坐下一趟。 ②His own experience was different from that of his friends. 他自己的体验和朋友们的体验不同。 ③I love spring—it is a wonderful time of the year. 我喜欢春天——这是一年中一段美妙的时节。 ④The books on the desk are better than those/the ones under the desk. 桌子上面的书比桌子下面的书要好。 [典题 4] [xx·广东惠州模拟]Once you get to work, you can afford to spend at least an hour working on big, important tasks rather than on all those little urgent ________ (one). [答案] ones 此处空格的意义,指代前面的 tasks,并且与 all those 呼应,代替可 数名词复数,故填 ones。 2the other, other, another, others 的区别

Recycling is one way to protect the environment;reusing is another. 回收利用是保护环境的一种方法;而重复使用是另一种。 [典题 5] [xx·广东十校检测]I don't know whether the young man actually used the money for his breakfast or for ________ purposes. [答案] other 根据语义可知,此空泛指用钱的其他目的,且 purposes 为复数,故填 other。 [典题 6] [xx·山西临汾三模]A large number of people in our munity keep small dogs, cats, and birds as pets, and still ________ prefer to keep violent animals like tigers. [答案] others 空格与前面的 a large number of people 对比,指大量的人喜欢养 小狗,猫或者鸟之类的,而其他的人喜欢养像老虎这类的凶猛动物。others 泛指其他的人 们,故填 others。 3either, both, neither, all, none, any 的区别

①Larry asks Bill and Peter to go on a picnic with him, but neither of them wants to, because they have work to do.
拉里让比尔和彼得跟他一起去野餐,但他们两个都不想去,因为他们都有工作要做。 ②I've lived in New York and Chicago, but don't like either of them very much. 我在纽约和芝加哥生活过,但是我不喜欢它们中的任何一个。 [典题 7] [xx·重庆南开中学诊断]Many means had been tried but ________ of them were good enough. [答案] none 根据空格前的内容和连词 but 可知,该空应填为否定意义的代词。根据 many means 可知,多种方法被尝试,因此填 none。 [典题 8] [xx·安庆一中模拟]—Did your mother have a professional career, or did she work at home? —Actually, she did ________. When we were young, she stayed at home.Later, she went back to school and became a teacher. [答案] both 根据空格后的内容可知,母亲两件事情都做过,故填 both。 4none, no one 与 nothing 的区别

[典题 9] I knew that ________ would ever discourage him; he would never give up wanting to be a director.
[答案] nothing 根据下文他从未放弃可知,没什么能让他泄气,故填 nothing。 [典题 10] My brother would like to buy a good watch but ________ was available from that shop. [答案] none but 为关键信息,上文说买一块手表,but 后表示没有一块,故填 none。
考点 3 it 的用法 1it 指代前面所提到过的事情、事物;身份不明的人或婴儿;未指明但谈话双方都明白 的事情或情况 The Parkers bought a new house but it will need a lot of work before they can move in. 帕克一家买了一套新房子,但是在入住之前有大量的工作需要去做。(指代前面提到的 同一事物) 2it 用作形式主语或形式宾语,而把真正的主语或宾语放在后面,真正的主语或宾语往 往由从句、动名词、不定式充当 ①New technologies make it possible to turn out new products faster and at a lower cost. 新的科技使得在高效率低成本的前提下生产出新的产品成为可能。 ②As far as I'm concerned, it is no use arguing with him; he won't change his mind. 就我个人而言,同他争论没用,他不会改变主意。 3 表示“喜欢、恨”等心理方面的动词后面接 it,构成固定结构,这类动词有 enjoy, prefer, love, like, hate, dislike, appreciate 等 They would appreciate it, to be frank,if the goods could be delivered as soon as possible. 坦率地说,如果货物尽快被送到,他们会感激不尽。 4it 用于强调句型及其他固定句式中 ①It is on the farm where we worked together that we got to know each other. 我们是在一起工作过的农场上相互认识的。 ②Laughter is the best medicine—at least when it es to protecting your heart. 笑是最好的药,至少当涉及保护心脏的时候(是这样)。

5it 用来指代时间、地点等;也可用于意义表达不明确的语境中,通常不指代内容,如: get it(明白了);make it(成功了);forget it(算了吧)等结构中
[典题 11] [xx·宁夏银川一中模拟]Parents often find ________ difficult to win their children's trust and they always forget how they themselves felt when young.
[答案] it 分析句子结构可知,此处用 it 作形式宾语,不定式为真正宾语。 考点 4 介词及介词短语
1 高考常考介词(短语)用法归纳与辨析

[典题 12] [xx·贵州遵义高级航天中学一模]In Bulgaria, where I live, homeless dogs are everywhere but many people here turn a blind eye ________them.
[答案] to 此处表述流浪狗很多,但是很多人对此熟视无睹。turn a blind eye to “对……熟视无睹,视而不见”。故填 to。
2 其他高考常考介词的用法

(1)介词 at 可表示动作、感情的原因,意思是“因……而;听到/看到/想到…… 就……”。
At the boy's remark, the book seller looked at him curiously. 听到男孩的那句话,卖书人好奇地看着他。 (2)“on/upon+名词或动名词”结构可表示“一……就……”。 On/Upon his arrival he went straight to the counter and spoke to the clerk in uniform behind it. 他一到就径直往柜台走去,并与柜台后边穿制服的店员说话。 (3)to 与情感名词连用,表示“某种行动后产生的感觉”。 to one's delight/surprise/horror/sorrow/joy/regret 令某人愉悦/惊讶/恐惧/ 悲伤/高兴/遗憾的是 (4)with 的用法: ①表示两种事物之间的相应关系或齐头并进的意思。 With time passing, they have grown into big boys. 随着时间的流逝,他们都长成大小伙子了。 ②指原因或理由。 The small child trembled with fear. 小孩吓得打哆嗦。 (5)by 的用法: ①表示变化或差异的程度。 This one is shorter than that one by three inches. 这一个比那一个短三英寸。 ②表示“按,以,论”的含义,指买卖东西所用以计算的度量单位,或付酬所用以计算 的时间。 Milk is sold by the pint, butter by the pound, and eggs by the dozen. 牛奶论品脱卖,黄油论磅卖,蛋类论打卖。 ③表示“按照……”或“根据……”的意思。 By my watch, the time is half past eleven. 按我的表,现在是十一点半。 (6)of 与抽象名词连用,表示的意义相当于该名词对应的形容词。 of+great/much+抽象名词=very+形容词;of+no+抽象名词=not+形容词。 It is of great/much value.=It is very valuable. 这个东西很贵重。 [典题 13] [xx·山东潍坊一中期末]________my delight, when my teacher raises a question, I know how to answer more often. [答案] To to one's delight “令某人高兴的是”。 3 介词搭配

①You can change your job, you can move house, but friendship is meant to be for life.
你可以换工作,可以搬家,但友谊却可以终生受用。 ②I have an appointment with Dr Smith, but I need to change it. 我和史密斯医生有个约会,但我需要改一下。 ③Apart from good service, the restaurant offers different kinds of traditional Fujian dishes. 除了良好的服务外,本饭店还提供不同种类的传统闽菜。 4 除以上介词短语外,还有以同一动词后跟不同介词(副词)表示不同意义的动词短语 [典题 14] [xx·陕西咸阳模拟]Nowadays, you should be more careful not to be taken ________ by ads for slimming products. [答案] in 此处为动词与介词搭配的动词词组。take in 意为“吸收;理解;欺骗”。 此处表述要小心不要被减肥产品的广告欺骗,作“欺骗”讲时,一般用被动形式。 [典题 15] [xx·安徽六校联考]Thanks ________ Yuan Longping, he not only won the battle ________ hunger, but he could also export his crops abroad. [答案] to; against 第一空为固定短语,thanks to 意为“多亏,由于”;第二空 表示“抵抗,对抗”的意思,因此填介词 against。

NO.1 解题步骤 1.首先分析句子结构,判断缺少的句子成分是什么。 2.根据各个代词/介词的意义和用法的不同填写符合语境的答案。 NO.2 解题技巧 1 当句子缺少主语或宾语时,填代词,要根据语境,判断该空格是指人还是指事物,是 男还是女,是单数还是复数。 2 空格在名词前,且与句子的某名词之间存在所属关系时,填形容词性物主代词。 3 当空格后的名词或动名词不作主语、表语,也不作动词的宾语时,应为介词的宾语, 故填介词;此时,要根据搭配或句意的需要,如:动词与介词的搭配,介词与后面名词的搭 配等来确定具体填哪个介词。 [ 典 题 1] [xx· 广 东 潮 州 模 拟 ]After I ignored my dad's advice, I found ________ losing almost every match at the international level. [答案] myself 此处表示“我发现自己……”,主语和宾语为同一人,形成互指关系。 故填 myself。 [典题 2] [xx·福建厦门联考]A new research suggests that teens who go along with their friends may end ________ healthier as adults. [答案] up 根据句意可知,那些和朋友们关系相处比较好的青少年们往往长大成人 后,会更加地健康。end up “最终成为,最后处于”,故填 up。end up 的用法除了后接介 词短语和 v.?ing 形式,还可接形容词。
1.在代词的学习过程中要做到以下两点: (1)熟练掌握代词的基本用法和重点难点; (2)明确指代内容,把指代的内容与考点有机地结合起来是解决代词问题的关键:①代 词指代的是人还是物;②代词指代的是可数名词还是不可数名词;③代词指代的是单数概念 还是复数概念(是两者,三者还是三者以上);④是特指还是泛指;⑤在句中代词是全部否定 还是部分否定。 2.介词需在平时的学习过程中日积月累,并在使用时注意不同介词的使用特点。
建议用时:20 分钟

Part Ⅰ.单句语法填空 1.[xx·安徽安庆一中模拟]To her joy, Della first earned the trust of her students and then ________ of her colleagues. 答案:that 这里需要一个代词指代 the trust, that 可以指代特指的可数名词单数或 不可数名词。句意:让她高兴的是,德拉首先赢得了学生的信任,然后是同事的信任。 2.[xx·河北正定期末]Many singles say the regular dating scene has led them from one bad experience to ________ and are ready to try something else. 答案:another 空格前为介词,应填名词或代词。结合语义可知,此处填 another, 表示泛指,意为“从一个不好的经历到另一个不好的经历。” 3.[xx·甘肃天水一中期末]In fact, there were cases ________ which the bride was beaten by her mother for not crying at the wedding ceremony. 答案:in 此处为“介词+关系代词”引导的定语从句。从句中 which 指代的是先行词 cases。根据固定搭配 in the case 可确定,此处介词填 in。 4.[xx·重庆育才中学月考]Before I got on the bike, I felt extremely nervous and I was afraid that I would fall off and hurt ________ (me). 答案:myself 本句中主语与宾语为同一人,形成互指,故使用反身代词作动词 hurt 的宾语,表示“弄伤了自己”。故答案为 myself。 5.[xx·河北衡水调研]In Dubai, over the last four years, ________ the help of the Consulate General of the Turkish Republic, we have organized four Successful Charity celebrations to mark April 23 Children's Day. 答案:with with the help of 为固定短语,表示“在……的帮助下”。 6.[xx·福建漳州模拟]The staff turned the lights ________ in the restaurant so as not to be noticed by the attackers. 答案:off 根据语境可知,此处表示“把灯关掉”,故应填 off。turn off “关闭, 关掉”。 7.[xx·天津模拟]________ our arriving at the airport, we were given a warm wele by the local people. 答案:Upon/On upon/on+名词/动名词表示 “一……就……”,相当于 as soon as。 8.[xx·江苏南通模拟]The Belt and Road Initiative is viewed by many as a history?making project,________applauded by the Chinese and those along the route as well. 答案:one one 作 a history?making project 的同位语,泛指一个创历史性的项目, 故填 one。句意: 一带一路的倡议被许多人看作是历史性的项目,受到不仅中国而且还有 那些沿路国家的交口称赞。 9.[xx·江苏徐州模拟]The address is on the envelope. I would appreciate ________ if you could give me your earliest reply. 答案:it would appreciate it if ... 为固定句式,意为“如果……我将非常感激”。 此处 it 是形式宾语,真正的宾语是后面 if 引导的从句。故填 it。 10.[xx·湖南长沙模拟]They carry out regular checks on milk products to make

sure that they are________high quality. 答案:of 此处“be of+抽象名词”是一个固定结构,表示“具有……”。 Part Ⅱ.单句改错 1.[xx·驻马店模拟]It is hoped that rules and regulations should be improved
about the e?hongbao system to guarantee their operation. ________________________________________________________ 答案:their→its 根据语境可知,此处指代的是前面的单数概念的名词 the e?hongbao
system,表示“确保电子红包的运行”,故将 their 改为 its。 2.[xx·辽宁葫芦岛模拟]Personally, we should not regard money as anything. Money
is just a toy with which we can get what we need. ________________________________________________________ 答案:anything→everything 根据语义可知,我们不应把金钱看作一切。everything
强调整体,anything 强调个体,因此将 anything 改为 everything。 3.[xx·牡丹江一中检测]I didn't like the clothes at first. I was afraid that
I would be laughed by other kids. ________________________________________________________ 答案:laughed 后加 at laugh at 为固定短语,在变为被动语态后,介词 at 不能省略,
故应加上 at。 4.[xx·福建三明调研]Instead of the traditional impressions of high?pressure
Asian schools, with rows of heads buried by books, the students are trying different approaches to learning.
________________________________________________________ 答案:by→in be buried in “埋头于……”是一个固定词组。故将 by 改为 in。句 意:亚洲学校学生们不再是传统的埋头于书中的印象,他们现在正在尝试使用不同的方法来 进行学习。 5.[xx·福建莆田质检]Television in America today remains, to a large extent, with the same organization and standards as they had thirty years ago. ________________________________________________________ 答案:they→it 由前文主谓语“Television”“remains”可知,as 从句中的主语指 代的是单数概念的 Television,故改 they 为 it。句意:当今的美国电视在很大程度上,和 它 30 年前一样,仍然具有相同的机构和标准。 Part Ⅲ.语法填空 阅读下面短文,在空白处填入 1 个适当的单词或括号内单词的正确形式。 [xx·福建厦门质检]Ten years ago, I ___1___ (ask) to have a demonstration (示 范) lecture on behalf of our college, with the presence of probably 60 teachers from other schools. Deep inside, I didn't want to do it. I had less than one year's teaching experience. Many experienced teachers were not willing ___2__ (do) it. Most of them worried that ___3___ they didn't do a good job, it would bring ___4___ (embarrass) to the college and themselves, too.

Finally, I promised to undertake the ___5___ (challenge) task after plenty of inner struggles. I decided the only way to escape fear is to trample (踩踏) ___6___ beneath my foot. I did a good job. Almost all the teachers ___7___ attended the lecture spoke highly of my teaching. That's a magical moment. Ever after, I have been making progress all the time. And every time I face a challenge or something like that, I remind myself ___8___ the difficult but rewarding one a decade ago.
The ___9___ (far) you get away from a challenge, the more difficult it is. Never give up ___10___ (easy) because the roughest roads often lead to the top.
1.________ 2.________ 3.________ 4.________ 5.________ 6.________ 7.________ 8.________ 9.________ 10.________ 篇章导读:本文是一篇夹叙夹议文。作者要代表他的大学在 60 名外校老师面前做示范 演讲,他感到恐惧,经过内心的一番挣扎,作者决定勇于接受挑战并最终做得很好。此事使 作者感受颇深并一直激励着作者努力前行。 1.was asked 考查动词的时态和语态。根据语境可知,主语 I 和动词 ask 之间是被动 关系,表示“我被要求进行一次示范演讲”,同时根据时间状语 Ten years ago 可知,此处 应用 ask 的一般过去时的被动语态。故填 was asked。 2.to do 考查非谓语动词。固定短语 be willing to do sth. 意为“愿意做某事”。 故填 to do。 3.if 考查状语从句。此处表述他们大多数人都担心如果他们讲得不好,……。空格 处引导条件状语从句,意为“如果”。故填 if。 4.embarrassment 考查词性转换。此处应用 embarrass 的名词形式作动词 bring 的宾 语,指“带来尴尬”。故填 embarrassment。 5.challenging 考查词性转换。此处定冠词 the 和名词 task 之间缺少定语,故用 challenge 的?ing 形式 challenging 作定语,意为“具有挑战性的”。 6.it 考查代词。根据句意可知,trample 的宾语为前面出现的 fear,故用代词 it 代替,表示“我决定摆脱恐惧的唯一办法就是把恐惧踩在脚下”。故填 it。 7.who/that 考查定语从句的引导词。分析句子结构可知,空格处引导定语从句,指 代先行词 Almost all the teachers,并在从句中作主语。故填 who/that。 8.of 考查介词。固定短语 remind sb. of sth. 意为“使某人想起某事”。故填 of。 9.farther/further 考查副词的比较级。“the+比较级 ...,the+比较级 ... ” 为固定结构,表示“越……,就越……”。故填 farther/further。 10.easily 考查词性转换。此处表示“永远不要轻易放弃”,需用 easy 的副词形式 修饰动词短语 give up。故填 easily。


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