The Attributive Clause
从句的位置： 在名词或代词后 先 引 行 词： 被定语从句修饰的词
导 词： 引导定语从句的词 关系代词 关系副词
关系代词 先行词 句中作用 关系副词 who 人 主语 whom 人 宾语 which 物 主语／宾语 that 人／物 主语／宾语 whose 人／物 定语 When 时间 状语 where 地点 状语 why reason 状语
关系代 词在限制 性定从句 中作宾语 可以省略
the handsome the tall the strong the clever the naughty
The boy is Tom. The boy who is handsome is Tom. The boy who is tall The boy who is strong The boy who is clever The boy who is naughty is Tom. is Tom is Tom is Tom.
? The boy is Tom. The boy is smiling.
The boy who is smiling is Tom.
? The boy is Tom. The boy has a round face.
The boy who has a round face is Tom.
? The boy is Tom. He sits in front of me.
The man who sits in front of me is Tom.
? The woman got the job.
The woman can speak Russian.
The woman who can speak Russian got the job.
? The teacher will give us a talk.
The teacher is famous. The teacher who is famous will give us a talk.
? The man is kind. Everyone likes him.
The man (whom) everyone likes is kind.
(宾语) ? The woman got the job.
We saw her on the street. The woman (whom) we saw on the street got the job.
? The teacher will give us a talk.
We met the teacher yesterday. The teacher (whom) we met yesterday will give us a talk.
Ex: ?He is the teacher. The teacher can speak French. He is the teacher who can speak French.
? Do you know the man?
He came to visit you today. Do you know the man who came to visit you today?
? The lady stepped on his foot.
He was dancing with the lady.
The lady (whom) he was dancing with stepped on his foot.
? Do you know the man?
You will visit him today. Do you know the man whom you will visit today?
the red the green the small the big
is mine. is small
The apple which is red The apple which is red
The apple which is green is yours. The apple which is green is big.
? Mrs. Clark is angry with the goat. The goat is eating her flowers. Mrs. Clark is angry with the goat which is eating her flowers.
? Can you lend me the book? You talked about it last night. Can you lend me the book (which) you talked about last night.
A plane is a machine. It can fly. A plane is a machine that can fly.
He is the man. I told you about him.
He is the man (that) I told you about. ? that 指人/物，作主语或宾语 (作宾语可省略）
4. that 指人/物，作主语或宾语 (作宾语可省略）
A plane is a machine that can fly. He is the man (that) I told you about.
? that和which在指物的情况下一般都可以互换, 但在下列情况下, 一般只用that而不用which。
(1) 先行词为all, everything, nothing, something, anything, little, much 等不定代词时。 I am sure she has something (that) you can borrow. 或者先行词被all, every, no, some, any, little, much等 修饰时。 I’ve read all the books that are not mine. (2)先行词被序数词或最高级修饰时。 This is the first book (that) he has read.
(3)先行词被the only, the very, (the same), the last修饰时。 This is the very book that belongs to him.
先行词既有人又有物时. ?The terrible typhoon killed the people and cattle that were in the fields. ?(5) 先行词是who或who引导的主句。 Who is the girl that drove the car? ?Who that broke the window will be punished. ?(6)当先行词是which时，关系代词用that. ?Which is the book that you bought last week? ?(7) 当先行词在定语从句中作be表语時，关 系代词用that. ? She isn’t the girl that she was 10 years ago. ?(8) 主句以There be 引导时 There are 200 people that didn’t know the thing.
1.This is all____I A know about the matter. A.that B.what C.who D.whether 2Is there anything else_____you require? B A.which B.that C.who D.what 3.The last place _____we visited was the Great Wall. B A.which B.that C.where D.it B 4.He talked happily about the men and books_____ interested him greatly in the school. A.which B.that C.it D.whom C 5.There is no dictionary____you can find everything. A.that B.which C.where D.in that 6.This is one of the best books_______. A A.that have ever been writtenC.that has written B.that has ever been written D.that have written
B _ __ 7.He wrote a letter to me,telling me everything__ he saw on the way to the Paris. A.what B.that C.which D.where A 8.Is oxygen the only gas_____helps fire burn? A.that B./ C.which D.it B 9.Is there anything_____to you? A.that is belonged B.that belongs C.which belongs D.that belong B 10.The scientist and his achievements______you told me about are admired by us all. A.which B.that C.who D.whose C 11.Which of the books______were borrowed from him is the best? A.which B.what C.that D.whose
12.The terrible typhoon killed the people and cattle _______ that were in the fields. 13.The wind blew down the tallest tree ____ that is in front of our school gate. 14.This is the very thing ______ that I was looking for. 15.This is the second novel _____I that have ever read. 16.There is nothing in the world _______ that can frighten me. 17.Who is the man _______ that is reading under the tree? that it 18.My hometown is not the same one _______ used to be twenty years ago.
who,that （先行词为人）区别 1.用who不用that的情况： (1)当先行词为one,ones,anyone,those时。 (2)当先行词为人称代词时。 He who does not reach the Great Wall is not a true man.
Those who have any difficulty with pronunciation should practise 2.只能用which 不用that的情况:
1.介词前置时关系代词只能用which(先行词为物) 2. 引导非限制性定语从句修饰某物或整个句子时只能用which
(1) She failed the exam, which made her parents vary angry.
(2)My glasses,without which I was like a blind man,fell to the ground and broke.
whose 在定语从句中作定语,表示引导词 与 whose 后的名词为所属关系。 whose多指人，也可指物，指物时可与 of which互换使用。 This is the book whose cover is blue. =This is the book of which the cover is blue. =This is the book the cover of which is blue.
Do you know the girl? Her hair is very short in our class. Do you know the girl whose hair / of whom the hair /the hair of whom is very short in our class?
He is the student. I broke his pencil yesterday
He is the student whose pencil / of whom the pencil / the pencil of whom I broke yesterday.
Mr King was quickly taken to hospital. Her legs were badly hurt.
Mr King, whose legs were badly hurt, was quickly taken to hospital.
We shall make a decision about Ms King. I have told you her story.
We shall make a decision about Ms King, whose story I have told you.
The boss of the company told the story about Ms King. His name was Mr Little.
. The boss of the company, whose name was Mr Little, told the story about Ms King
The chair is being repaired now. The legs of the chair are broken. The chair,whose legs / the legs of which / of which the legs are broken is being repaired now.
This teacher is liked by all the students. I work with her son.
This teacher,with whose son I work, is liked by all the students The boss had heard about the accident. Mr King worked in his department. The boss in whose department Mr King worked had heard about the accident.
1 The river ___are covered with trees is very long. D A which banks B of which banks C whose the banks D the banks of which 2 She likes to use words ___is A clear to him. A of which the meaning B of which meaning C whose of meaning D meaning of which
3 The manager___company they worked agreed D ____their decision.
A which, with B in which, to C whose, with D in whose, with
B 4 Look! The dictionary ,____is red, is a birthday gift given by my parents.
A which cover B the cover of which C the whose cover D that the cover
6 Will you please show me the girl C ____name is Linda? A who B whom C whose D which
D 7 It was a meeting ,____importance I did not realize at the time. C its D whose
A which B of which
8 Do you know who is living in that house ____windows face south? A
A whose B which C which of D its 11 Mark Twins , for _____life had once been very A hard, wrote many famous novels.
B who C whom D his
D 12 There is a mountain ____is always covered with snow. A whose the top B of which top C its top D of which the top
在限制性定语从句中, 当先行词与as,so,such,the same 连用或先行词本身是such,the same时,关系代词用as. As是关系代词,在从句中作主语、宾语或表语。
1.He is not such a man as only thinks of himself.
2.I should like to use the same pen as I used yesterday. 3.Such problems as are often mentioned should be solved. 4.I will read as many books as are required.
5. Here is so big a stone as no one can lift.
when在定语从句中作时间状语，相当于“介 词+关系代词（which）”。 I’ll never forget the day when I joined the league
on which where在定语从句中作地点状语，相当于“介 词+关系代词（which）”。 This is the house where I lived two years ago. in which
why在定语从句中作原因状语，相当于“介词 for+ 关系代词（which）”。
Do you know the reason why she was late. It rained heavily, for which he was late for the class. where I was born. 1. This is the town __________ which I visited last week. This is the town _________ when I came to school. 2. I will never forget the day _______
I will never forget the daywhich _______ I spent with you.
why 3. This is the reason ________ he was late. which he told me. This is the reason ________ which The reason _________he explained is not true.
“介词＋关系代词(whom/which)”引导定语 从句应注意： 1介词的选用至少要考虑以下的两个因素
on which 1）I will never forget the day _____________ I joined the army. which I 2) I will never forget the days during ____________ worked in the school. 3) I will never forget the year ____________ my son in which went to college. by which 4) I got home at 7:00 p.m. yesterday, ____________ most people had had supper.
for which I 1）Have you found the book ____________ paid 29 US dollars? 2) Have you found the book _____________ on which I spent 29 US dollars? from which we 3) Have you found the book _____________ learnt a lot? about which she 4) Have you found the book ____________ often talks?
? The boy is in the lab.
You want to talk to him
The boy (whom/that) you want to talk to is in the lab. The boy to whom you want to talk is in the lab.
Do you find the pen? I wrote with it just now Do you find the pen (which/that) I wrote with just now? Do you find the pen with which I wrote just now?
? This is the boy. I sit behind him.
This is the boy (whom/that) I sit behind. This is the boy behind whom I sit.
1.介词 + whom\which The woman general still remember the day on which she joined the army
2.介词 短语 + which\whom
The fisherman lived in a small house in front of which lies a well.
3. 不定代词 或数词 +which\whom
There are many books here , none of which belongs to me. China has a lot of famous writers, one of whom is Luxun.
4.名词+ of which
She mentioned a magazine,the title of which I have forgotten. S
h e m
part of whom/which
There are 23 students in our class, A:________________( 他们都） love mothers deeply. all of whom B:________________ （大多数） are from countryside. most of whom C:________________ （有些）are from Xiabancheng some of whom none of whom D:________________ （没有一个）are from Beijing
There are 23 students in our class. (,and) all of them A:________________ (他们都） love mothers deeply. most of them B:________________ （大多数） are from countryside. some of them C:________________ （有些） are from Xiabancheng none of them D:________________ （没有一个） are from Beijing
Every student has many books,
most of which（大多数）are textbooks. A:______________
some of which （一些） are extra B:________________ curricular books.
C:______________ （其余的）are reference the rest of which books.
none of which （没有一本）are novels. D:________________
E:_______________ （有几本）are English several of which books.
1.Do you know who lives in the： building______there is a well? C A.in front of it B. in front of whose C.in front of which D.in front which A 2.I’ll never forget the day____I joined theLeague. A.on which B B.in which C.which D.at which 3.The woman__my brother spoke just now is my teacher. A. who B.to whomB C.to who D whom 4.Jeanne was her old friend,____she borrowed a necklace. A.from who B.from whom C.to C that D.to whom 5.His glasses,______he was like a blind man,fell to the ground and broke its leg.
6.she is a teacher of much knowledge,_____much can be learned. D A.who B.that C. from which D.from whom 7.He built a telescope_____he could study the C skies. A.in which B.with that C.through which D.by it D 8.Do you know the reason____he was late? A.that B.which C.for what D.for which 9.I have bought two ballpens,____writes well. B A.none of which B.neither of which C.none of them D.neither of them A 10.The Second World War_____millions of people were killed in 1945. A.during which B.in that C.where D.on which
C 11.China has many rivers,____the Changjiang River is the longest. A.which B. in which C.among which D. one of which D used to cut apples 12.This is the very knife_____I yesterday. A.that B.by which C.which D.with which at 13.The speed____which you drive your car mustn’t too high. 14.In the park there are many flowers,the colour_____ of which is bright and nice. in 15.The little girl is reading a book,_____which there are many pictures. 16.What were the things_______which he was not too of sure
17.They held a meeting,____which the hospital at director made a speech. 18.The book,_____which he paid 6 yuan,is worth for reading. in 19.Is this the man____whose house the police found the lost coloured TV? through 20.The villagers dug along tunnel______which they could go to the fields without being found by the Japanese soldiers. with 21.Wu Dong,_____whom I went to the concert, enjoyed it very much. of 22.The stories about Long March,_____which this is one example,are well written.
1.He paid the boy $ 10 for washing ten windows,most which of _________had not been cleaned for at least one year.
2.In the dark street, there was not a single person To whom _____ ______she could turn for help.
of which 3.China has a lot of islands ,the largest_____ _________is Taiwan.
4.The old lady had one son and two none of which _______treated her daughters,_________ ________ which well, ______made her very sad.
of whom 5.There are forty students in our class,______ _______20 are girls; the rest are boys.
限制性定语从句是先行词在意义上不可缺少的定 语， 如果去掉，主句的意思就不完整或失去意义。 这种从句和主句关系十分密切， 写时不用逗号分 开。 The man who came here yesterday has come again. 非限制性定语从句和主句关系不很密切，只 是对先行词作些附加说明， 如果去掉，主句 的意思仍然清楚。这种从句， 写时往往逗号 分开。
1.His mother ,whom he loved dearly,went abroad.
2.This machine ,which he has looked after for many years ,is still working perfectly. 3.Aqiao,whose parents had died ,had to make a living by herself. 4.The family ,who lived upstairs,are fond of music. 说明：非限制性定语不能用that 引导； 作宾语用的关系代词不能省； 要用逗号隔开。
用法与区别 “限”是先行词不可缺 少的定语.如果省去， 主句意思不完整或不明 确；“非限”只是附加 说明。
限制性定语从句 All the people were talking about the wonderful cloth The emperor had ordered to be woven
非限制性定语从句 They set up a state of their own,where they would be free to keep Negroes as slaves.
“限”于主句之间不能 She is the nurse who The letter is from my sister,who is 用逗号隔开；“非限” looks after the working in Beijing. 与主句之间要用逗号隔 children. 开。
“限”可以用that引导；That is the very tool “非限”不能用that引 that we are looking for 导
I saw a good film, which was about the Long March
“限”的关联词作宾语 I will never forget the His dog,which he liked very much, 时可省；非限则不可 day （that ）we spent together there died yesterday. “限”一般只修饰先行 I have finished the 词；非限既可修饰先行 novel that you lent 词，也可是前面的整个 me yesterday 句子或句子的一部分 He suddenly fell ill, which prevented him from going to school.
* As 和which 引导非限制性定语从句的区别：
位置不同. Which引导的从句与主句关系较密切，常放在主句之 后；而as引导从句，可放在句首、句中或句尾。
意义不同. Which既可代指先行词，又可代指整个主句的内容。 相当于“and this” or “ and that”. 译为“这一点”。
而as 则只能代指整个主句的内容。译为“正如…..那样”，且已 形成固定结构。 如：as is known, as is said, as is reported, as is often the case, as is expected. Etc.
注意: As 既可以引导限制性定语,又
eg. Einstein, as is known, is a famous scientist.
As is reported, China has become an important country in the world.
He didn’t come to attend the meeting, as is expected.
Bamboo is hollow, which makes it very light. My son now goes to the school, which I used go to when I was a child.
D 1.______was natural,he married Jenny. A.Which B.That C.This D.As A 2.Such signs_____we use in the experiment______ Greek letters. A.as ,are B.as,is C.that,are D.that,is C he 3.I passed him a large glass of whisky,_____ drank immediately . A.that B.as C.which D.who D 4.She is very good at dance,____everybody knows. A.that B.which C.who D.as D D 5.It was raining,_____was a pity. A.what B.that C.the which D.which D 6.______has been said above,grammar is a set of dead rules. A.Which B.What C.That D.As B 7.We do the same work_____they do. A.which B.as C.than D.like D 8.The earth is round,_____we all know. A.that B.which C.who D. as
从句是主动形式，用现在分词; 从句是被动形式，用 过去分词。或者看定语和被修饰词之间的关系，如果 定语和被修饰 词之间是主谓关系，用现在分词；如 果定语和被修饰 词之间是动宾关系，用过去分词；
(1)There are lots of good English programmes which are broadcast on TV or the radio in China. There are lots of good English programmes ________ broadcast on TV or the radio in China. (2)At one time there were long queues of people who were waiting outside the CAAC offices.
waiting ------At one time there were long queues of people ________
outside the CAAC offices.
1. I saw some trees, and the leaves of the trees were black with disease.
which -----I saw some trees, the leaves of ________were black with disease.
2. The professor is an ordinary-looking little man, on
whom the nose of __________there is a pair of glasses
3.The World Trade Organization (WTO) finally C a 15opened its door to China on November 10,_____ year wait. A. to end B. ended C. ending D. ends
A whom B．them C．they D．who 1）Mr Smith has three sons，none of ＿＿is a A c o m p u t e r e x p e r t ． 2He has three sisters，＿＿＿＿＿ are doctors． D 3）She has three CDs，but none of＿＿＿＿is B i n t e r e s t i n g ． 4）I have many friends，and all of＿＿＿＿＿are B n i c e a n d f r i e n d l y ． 5）Miss Yang has some relatives here；＿＿＿ C like her very much 6) He has two sons, neither of looks like him. Aof 7) He has two sons, and neither looks like him. B 8) He has two sons. Both of ____look like him. B
（1）句从引导词来看，状语从句中的that 是连词， 在从句中不充当任何成分，而定语从句中的as在从 句中要作一个成分（主语，宾语或表语）。
that (1)This is such a big stone _______no one can lift it.
as This is such a big stone _______no one can lift.
where (2)Please put the letter in the drawer _____ ______he can easily find it.
Please put the letter_________he can easily where find it.
where 1 You may stay _________you like.
2 We put the corn ___ the birds could find it easily. 3 I’d like you to take my picture ___stands the ancient tower
B it is warmer and wet all 4 Bamboo grows well___ the year round.
A in the place B in the place where C the place where D in which
C my grandfather was born. 5 I’ve never been to___
A which B in which C where D that
4.定语从句和名词性从句 (1) He did all (that) he could to help me .(=what) (2) All that can be done has been done. (=what)
As (3) _______is known to us all, the earth turns round the sun.
that It is known to us all _______Taiwan belongs to China.
What is known to us all is that the earth is smaller (4)______ than the sun.
强调句句型：It is/was +被强调的成份+that/who + 其它部分去掉 It is/was….that/who… ,句子照样 成立。(1) I lived in this room last year. (2) He went to school at seven this morning. 而定语 从句的引导词在句中要作一成份。
that lived last year. (1) It is in this room ______I
where lived last year. It is the room _______I
that (2) It was at seven o’clock ________he went
to school this morning. It was seven o’clockwhen _______he went to school this morning.
A 1A.Is this the factory_____you visited last year? D B.Is this factory____you visited last year? a.that b.where c.in which d.the one D 2.A.Mr Smith is one of those foreigners who____ working in China. B.Mr Smith is the only one of those foreigners A who____working in China. a.is b.has c.have d.are 3.A.Don’t discuss questions such_____those. C B.Let’s discuss only the questions______ B we are interested in. a.which b.that c.as d.about which 4.A. All____I C need is a good rest. B. ____I A need is a good rest. a.What B All what c.That d.Which
5.A.Pisa is a city, ___ a has a leaning tower. B.Pisa is a city,____there is a leaning tower. c a.which b.that c.where d.there a 6.A.This is the place____we visited last year. b B.This the place____we worked last year. a.which b.where c. in that d.there 7.A.The news_c__he told us was very exciting. B.He has brought us the news____our team c has won the game. a.what b.as c.that d.where 8.It is in a box____I have hidden my money. a We’ll go___we are needed. c a.that b.in which c.where d.in it
B 1.________is known to everyone, the moon travels round the round the earth once every month. (NMET2001 A.until B. As C.That D. What C 2.The film brought the hours back to me _______I was taken good care of in that far-away village.NMET2001)
A.until B.which C. when D.where
3.Dorothy was always speaking highly of her role in the B play,_____,of course,made the others unhappy.(NMET2000) A.who B. which C. this D.what
4.Carol said the work would be done by D October,______personally I doubt very much.(NMET99)
5.After living in Paris for fifty years, he returned to C the small town_______he grew up as a child. (NMET96)
A. which B. where C.that D. when
B 6.The weather turned to be very good,________was more than we could expect. (NMET94 )
A.what B.which C.that D. it 7.In the dark street , there was not a single person ________she could turn for help.(NMET 92) D
A. that B.who
C. from whom D. to whom
8. He paid the boy $ 10 for washing ten windows, D most of _______hadn ’t been cleaned for at least a year. (NMET90) A. these B. those C. that D. which