Unit3《Celebrations》lesson1 Chinese seasonal festival 学案(北师大版必修1)

英语:Unit3《Celebrations》lesson1 Chinese seasonal festival 学案(北师大版必修 1)
英语动词有两种语态:主动语态和被动语态。主动语态表示主语是动作的执行者,被 动语态表示主语是动作的承受者。如: Many people speak English.(主动语态) English is spoken by many people.(被动语态) 1.被动语态的构成 由于不及物动词不能带宾语,故无被动语态,只有及物动词或相当于及物动词的动词 短语才有被动语态,其基本构成方式是“助动词 be+过去分词”。 注意:“be+过去分词”结构不一定都是被动语态,有些动词(如 be,feel,look,seem 等)后面的过去分词已转化为形容词,用作表语表示状态。如: My bike is broken.(我的自行车坏了。) The door is open.(门开了。) 2.主动语态改被动语态的方法 1)将主动语态改为被动语态应注意以下三个方面:①将主动语态的宾语改为被动语态 的主语;②将主动语态的谓语动词改为“be+过去分词”结构;③将主动语态的主语改为介词 by 之后的宾语,放在谓语动词之后(有时可省略)。 2)含直接宾语和间接宾语的主动语态改为被动语态时有两种情况:①把间接宾语改为 被动语态的主语,直接宾语仍保留原位;②把直接宾语改为主动语态的主语,此时,间接宾 语前要加介词 to 或 for。如: He gave the boy an apple.→The boy was given an apple.(或 An apple was given to the boy.) Her father bought her a present.→She was bought a present by her father.(或 A present was bought for her by her father.) 3)不带 to 的动词不定式作宾语补足语的主动语态,改为被动语态时不定式前要加 to。 如: They watched the children sing that morning.→The children were watched to sing that morning.

4)带复合宾语的动词在改为被动语态时,一般把主动语态的宾语改为主语,宾语补足 语在被动语态中作主语补足语。如: We call him Xiao Wang.→He is called Xiao Wang. He cut his hair short.→His hair was cut short. They told him to help me.→He was told to help me. 5)短语动词是不可分割的整体,改为被动语态时要保持其完整性,介词或副词不可遗 漏。如: We must take good care of the young trees.→The young trees must be taken good care of. 6)含有宾语从句的主动结构变为被动结构时,通常用 it 作为被动结构的先行主语,从 句放在句子后面;也可采用另一种形式。可以这样转换为被动结构的动词有 know,say, believe,find,think,report 等。如: People believe that he is ill.→It is believed that he is ill.(或:He is believed to be ill.) 3.被动语态改为主动语态的方法: 被动语态中介词 by 后的宾语改为主动语态中的主语(或按题意要求确定主语),按照 这个主语的人称和数以及原来的时态把谓语动词形式由被动语态改为主动语态。 注意在主动 语态中有的动词要求不带 to 的动词不定式作宾语补足语,此时要把被动语态中的 to 去掉。 被动语态的主语用来作主动语态的宾语。如: History is made by the people. The people make history. 4.不能用于被动语态的情况 1)某些表示“静态”的及物动词(表示状态而不是动作,而且常常是不可用于进行时态 的动词)如 have,fit,suit,hold(容纳),cost, suffer,last(持续)等不能用于被动语 态。如: They have a nice car.他们有一辆漂亮的汽车。 My shoes don't fit me.我的鞋不合适。 My brain can't hold so much information at one time. 我的脑子一下子记不住这么多资料。 How much /What does it cost?这值多少钱? Our holiday lasts 10 days.我们的假期有十天。 This food will last(them)(for)3 days.这食物足够(他们)(吃)三天。 2)不是所有带介词的动词都能用于被动结构。若是构成成语动词通常有被动态,若不 构成成语动词则无被动态。试比较:

They arrived at a decision. A decision was arrived at.他们作出了决定。 They arrived at the station.他们到达车站。(不说:The station was arrived at.) He looked into the question. The question was looked into.他调查了这个问题。 3)动词 leave(离开),enter(进入),join(参加)不可用于被动语态。如: The car left the road and hit a tree.车子离开了道路,撞上了树。 4)某些及物动词可作不及物动词用,特别是后加副词(如 well, easily 等)时。主动 语态有被动含义,这类动词常见的有 sell,write, wear,wash,cook,open,close,lock, read,record 等。如: His new novel is selling well.他的新小说很畅销。The cloth washes well.这布很耐洗。 This material won't wear.这种材料不耐穿。His play won't act.他的戏剧不会上演。 The window won't shut.这窗关不上。The door won't open.这门打不开。 The door won't lock.这门锁不上。This poem reads well.这首诗读来很好。 5)feel,look,appear,sound,taste,smell 等由实意动词演变而来的系动词,后接形 容词作表语,不可用于被动语态。如: Tell me if you feel cold.你要是感到冷就告诉我。 You're looking very unhappy—what's the matter?你看来很不高兴———怎么回事儿? The soup tastes wonderful.这汤味道好极了。 Those roses smell beautiful.那些玫瑰好闻极了。 She appears to be friendly.她看上去很友好。 6)宾语是不定式或动词的-ing 形式时,不可用于被动语态。如: Peter hoped to meet her.彼得希望遇见她。 Mr Smith enjoyed seeing his daughter.史密斯先生喜欢看他的女儿。 7)宾语是反身代词或相互代词时,不可用于被动语态。如: She can dress herself.她可以自己穿衣服。 We could hardly see each other in the fog.在雾中我们彼此几乎看不见。 8)宾语是同源宾语时,不可用于被动语态。如: They live a happy life.他们过着幸福的生活。 The girl dreamed a sweet dream .那女孩做了个甜美的梦。 9)宾语带有与主语有照应关系的物主代词时,不可用于被动语态。如: The old man broke his(=the old man's)legs.那老人把自己的腿弄断了。

The girl shook her(=the girl's)head.那女孩摇了摇头。 5.某些动词的主动形式表被动含义 英语中有很多动词如 act,break,catch,cut,clean,drive,draw, let,lock,open, sell,read,write,wash,wear 等,当它们被用作不及物动词来描述主语特征时,其主动形 式常用来表达被动含义。另外,像 owe,beat,cook,bake,print,build,make 等,有时可 以用主动形式表达被动含义。如: This kind of radio doesn't sell well.这种收音机不太畅销。 The shop opens at eight o'clock.这个商店八点开门。 The pipe does not draw well.这烟斗不太通畅。 These plays act wonderfully.这些剧演得好。 Kate's book reads like an interesting novel.凯特的这本书读起来像本有趣的小说。 注意:主动表被动强调的是主语的特征,而被动语态则强调外界作用造成的影响。如: The door won't lock.门锁不上。(指门本身有毛病) The door won't be locked.门不会被锁上。(指不会有人来锁门) His novels sell easily.他的小说销路好。(指小说本身内容好) His novels are sold easily.他的小说容易销售。(主要强调外界对小说的需求量大) 6.某些动名词的主动形式表被动含义 1)在 need,want,require,deserve 和 bear 等词的后面,动名词用主动形式表示被动 含义,其含义相当于动词不定式的被动形式。如: The house needs repairing(to be repaired).这房子需要修理。 My clothes need washing(to be washed).我的衣服需要洗了。 2)形容词 worth 后面跟动名词的主动形式表示被动含义,但不能跟动词不定式;而 worthy 后面跟动词不定式的被动形式。如: The picture-book is well worth reading.(=The picture-book is very worthy to be read.) 这本画册很值得一读。 Such a man as Mr. Smith is not worth helping. (=Such a man as Mr.Smith is not worthy to be helped.)像史密斯先生那样的人不值得帮助。 This plan is not worth considering.(=This plan is not worthy to be considered.)这个 计划不值得考虑。 3)某些动词不定式的主动形式表被动含义

a.当 nice,easy,fit,hard,difficult,important,impossible,pleasant, interesting 等 形容词后跟不定式作状语, 而句子的主语又是动词不定式的逻辑宾语时, 这时常用不定式的 主动形式表达被动含义。如: Japanese is not difficult to learn.日语并不难学。(指日语被学) The water is unfit to drink.这水不适合喝。(指水被喝) The piece of music is pleasant to hear.这首音乐听起来很悦耳。(指音乐被听) This book is easy to read.这本书读起来很容易。(指书被读) b.当动词不定式在名词后面作定语,不定式和名词之间有动宾关系时,不定式的主动 形式表示被动含义。如: I have a lot of work to do today.我今天有很多工作要做。(work to do 指被做的工作) He has three children to look after.他有三个孩子要照看。(children to look after 指孩子 被照看) 注意:如果以上句型用动词不定式的被动形式,其含义有所区别。如: I have some clothes to be washed.我有些要洗的衣服。(衣服不是自己洗) c.在 there be...句型中,当动词不定式修饰名词作定语时,不定式用主动或被动 式,其含义没有什么区别。如: There is a lot of homework to do(to be done).有很多家庭作业要做。 There are some clothes to wash(to be washed).有些衣服要洗。 4)由介词 for,on,above,under 等构成的短语有时可以表达被动含义。如: His paintings will be on show tomorrow afternoon. =His paintings will be shown tomorrow afternoon.他的油画作品明天下午展出。 5)表示感官意义的连系动词如 smell,feel,taste,look,sound 等在句子中常表达被动 含义。如: How nice the music sounds!这音乐听起来多悦耳! Good medicine tastes bitter.良药苦口。 Our school looks more beautiful than before.我们学校看上去比以前更漂亮了。

被动语态专项练习一

一、选择题 ( ) 1. _____ a new library _____ in our school last year? A. Is; built ( B. Was; bulit C. Does; build D. Did; build

) 2. An accident ____ on this road last week. A. has been happened B. was happened C. is happened D. happened

(

) 3. Cotton ____ in the southeast of China. A. is grown B. are grown C. grows D. grow

(

) 4. So far, the moon ____ by man already. A. is visited B. will be visited C. has been visited D. was visited

(

) 5.A talk on Chinese history _____ in the school hall next week. A. is given B. has been given C. will be given D. gives

(

) 6. How many trees ____ this year? A. are planted B. will plant C. have been planted D. planted

(

) 7. A lot of things ____ by people to save the little girl now. A. are doing C. has been done B. are being done D. will be done

(

) 8. Neither of them ______ in China. A. is made B. are made C. were made D. made

( ) 9. The doctor _____ for yet. A .isn't sent ( B. hasn't been sent C. won't be sent D. wasn't sent

) 10.--When ___ this kind of computers______? --Last year. A. did; use B. as; used C. is; used D. are; used

(

) 11. The Great Wall ____ all over the world. A. knows B. knew C. is known D. was known

(

) 12. I ____ in summer. A. born B. was born C. have been born D. am born

(

) 13. He says that Mr. Zhang _____ to the factory next week. A. is sent B. would send C. was sent D. will be sent

( ) 14. The monkey was seen _____ off the tree. A. jump B. jumps C. jumped D. to jump

(

) 15.The school bag ___ behind the chair. A. puts B. can be put C. can be putted D. can put

二、 将下列句子变为被动语态,每空一词。 1. We can finish the work in two days. The work _____ _____ _____ in two days. 2. They produce silk in Suzhou. Silk ____ ______ in Suzhou. 3. The children will sing an English song. An English song ____ ____ ___ by the children. 4. You needn't do it now. It ____ _____ _____ by you now.

5. People use metal for making machines. Metal ____ ____ for making machines. 6. He made me do that for him. I ____ ____ ____ ____ that for him. 7. Did they build a bridge here a year ago? ____ a bridge ____ here by them a year ago? 8. We'll put on an English play in our school. An English play ____ ____ _____ on in our school. 9. My brother often mends his watch. His watch ____ ____ ____ by my brother. 10. We must water the flowers every day. The flowers must ___ ___ (by us) every day. 11. They use knives for cutting things. Knives ___ ___ for cutting things. 12. Did he break the window yesterday? ____ the window ___ ____ ___ yesterday? 13. They have sold out the light green dresses. The light green dresses ____ _____ ____ out. 14. We clean the classroom every day.

The classroom ____ ____ every day.

三、 用动词的正确语态填空。 1. The students _____ often _____(tell) to take care of their desks and chairs. 2. That play ________(put) on again sometime next month. 3. The old man is ill. He ______ (must send) to the hospital. 4. Vegetables, eggs and fruits_________ (sell) in this shop. 5. What ___ a knife ______ (make) of? 6. A Piano concert _____________(give) here last Friday. 7. ______ the magazine ____(can take) out of the library? 8. The room _____________ (clean) by me every day. 9. The stars _____________ (can see) in the daytime. 10. Some flowers __________ (water) by Li Ming already. 11. These kinds of machines __________ (make) in Japan. 12. Russian ____________ (learn) as the second language by some students in China. 13. The cinema ___________ (build) in 1985. 14. The bike ______________ (must not put) here. 15. A beautiful horse ___________ (draw) by John next day. 16. This kind of machine ___________ (can made) by uncle Wang. 17. The PLA ____________ (found) on August 1st, 1927. 18. By the time he was ten, the boy ________ (learn) English and French. 19. ______ you ____ (see) the film yet? Yes, I _______ (see) it last week. 20. Uncle Wang ____________ (live) here since 1980 21. Listen! Someone _________ (sing). 22. Tom ________ (not have) breakfast yesterday morning. Answers: 一、选择题 1-5 B DCCC 6-10 CBABC 11-15 CBDD B 二、填空:

1.can be finished

2. is produced

3. will be sung 8. will be put

4. needn’t be done 9. is often ment

5. are used 10. be watered

6. was made to do 7. was built 11. are used 三、填空: 1. are; told 2. will be put 12. was…broken by him

13. have been…sold

14. is cleaned

3. must be sent

4. are sold

5. is; made of

6. was given 11. are made

7. can; be taken 12.is learnt

8. is cleaned

9. can be seen

10. have been watered 15. will be drawn 20. has lived

13.was built 18. had learnt

14. must not be put 19. Have; seen saw

16. can be made 21. is singing 22.

17. was founded didn’t have

被动语态专项练习二 1. Travelers____ that they should bring their ID cards with them. A. have reminded C. were reminded 2. – Did you see Sandy in the manager’s office? -- Yes, she _____ by the manager. A. is questioned C. had been questioned 3. – Are they about to have dinner? -- Yes, it ______ in the dining room A. is being served B. is severed C. is serving D. serves B. was being questioned D. was questioned B. are reminded D. had been reminded

4. All he preparations for the task _____, and we are ready to start. A. completed C. are to complete B. to be completed D. have been completed

5. Fires are very dangerous. Every year thousands of lives _____ in the fires in our country. A. have been died B. were lost C. are lost D. are died

6. Those books which _____ often _____ well. A. are well received; are sold C. well receive; sell 7. – Why is the librarian looking so hard at me? B. are well received; sell D. were received; sell

-- You _____ to read aloud in the reading room. A. don’t suppose C. are not supposed B. haven’t supposed D. are not supposing

8. With the development of science, more new technology _____ to the fields of IT. A. has introduced C. is introduced B. is being introduced D. was introduced

9. In the spring sun, local residents ____ the Chengdu Botanical Garden where the Spring-greeting Flower Show is on. A. are to attract to C. are attracted to B. are to be attracted to D. are attracting to

10. It was said that other possibilities _____ at the meeting the day before yesterday? A. were never paid attention C. never paid attention to B. were never paying attention to D. were never paid attention to

11. The new dictionaries are very useful. They _____ well and _____ already. A. sell; have been sold out C. sell; sell out B. sold; had sold out D. are sold; have been sold out

12. – Are all the titles of the articles ____ in the contents? --Yes, all _____. A. listed; included C. listed; including B. listing; includes D. being listed; being included

13. John as well as the other children who ___ no parents ____ good care of in he village. A. have; is being taken C. has; is taken B. have; has taken D. has; have been taken

14. Neither of the young men who had tried to get the job in the company _____. A. has been accepted C. was accepted B. had been accepted D. accepted

15. The number of deaths from heart disease _____ greatly if people ____ to eat more fruit and vegetables. A. will reduce; will persuade C. will be reduced; are persuaded B. is reduced; persuade D. will reduce; will be persuaded

16. -- ______ our eco-travel plan might be put off. -- Yes, it all depends on eh weather. A. I’ve been told B. I’ve told C. I’m told D. I told

17. The fallen trees _____ away and the traffic is dead on the road. A. have been dragged C. were dragged B. are dragged D. are being dragged

18. A number of new functions ____ to the computer since it was first invented in 1946. A. have added C. have been adding B. were added D. have been added

19. Most of your time _____ to treating patients if you become a doctor after school. A. will devote C. will be devoted 20. – Why are you walking to school today? -- Well, my bike _____. A. is being mended B. was mended C. is mended D. is mending B. is devoted D. are devoted

21. This is one of the happiest days ____ spent in my life. A. that have ever been C. which was ever B. that have never been D. which we have never

22. More patients ____ in the hospital this year that last year. A. treated C. had been treated B. have treated D. have been treated

23. The cost of rising fuel bills ____ on to air passengers in the form of fuel surcharges(额外费). A. is being passed C. have been passed B. are being passed D. has passed

24. The train _____ because of an accident; many passengers are now waiting anxiously at the railway station. A. has been delayed C. has delayed B. delayed D. had been delayed

25. This is Ted’s photo; we miss him a lot. He ____ flying to save a child in the earthquake. A. killed B. is killed C. was killed D. was killing

26. Riding my bike to school on morning, ____ as I went across the main street. A. I was striked by a car C. I was struck with a car 27. – Look, someone has drunk all the beer. -- It’s not me. I ____ that. A. haven’t done B. wasn’t doing C. didn’t do D. won’t do B. a car struck me D. I was struck by a car

28. The man said that the car ____ day after day by him for ten years by the end of next year. A. would be driven C. would have been driven B. would be driving D. would have been driving

29. – Did you come to the museum by bike yesterday? -- No, two metres of snow fell during the night. As a result, several main roads ____. A. were blocked C. were being blocked B. had been blocked D. have been blocked

30. – Flight 331 _____. I’d better be on my way. Goodbye. -- Bye. Happy landing! A. was announced C. has announced B. is being announced D. is announced.

31. It was obvious that the man ____ driving on the freeway for almost an hour when he ____ that he must come back. A. was; told C. had been; told B. had been; was told D. was; was told

32. The robber broke into the store, trying to grab the money just as it ____ by Mr. Smith. A. had been counted C. was being counted B. was counted D. would be counted

33. – I took part in the TOEFL. It was really hard. -- Did you? _____ a lot? A. Have you studied C. Had you studied Answers: 1-5 BBADC 6-10 BCBCD 11-15 AAACC 16-20 ADDCA 21-25 ADAAC B. Did you study D. Do you study

26-30 DCCAB

31-33 BCC


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