2016届高考英语一轮总复习 专题十一 状语从句课件 新人教版_图文

第二部分
语法专题

专题十一

状语从句

在复合句中,修饰主句或主句谓语的句子叫作状语从 句。状语从句可位于主句之前,也可位于主句之后。状语 从句可分为时间、地点、原因、结果、条件、方式、让 步、比较和目的等九大类。

一、状语从句引导词列表 从句类型 从属连词

时间状语 as,after,before,once,since,till, 从句 地点状语 从句 until,when,whenever,while,as soon as where,wherever,anywhere,everywhere

原因状语 because,since,as,now(that),seeing 从句 that,considering that,in that

结果状语从句 that,so that,so/such...that... so that,in order that,for fear 目的状语从句 that,in case,for the purpose that if,unless,as/so long as,on 条件状语从句 condition that,in case, provided that 比较状语从句 than,as...as,not so/as...as

方式状 语从句 让步状 语从句

as,as if/though,how though,although,even if/though,however, whatever,as,while

易错提示:(1)上述有些连词除了能引导状语从句外, 还可引导定语从句和名词性从句。在使用的时候,要根据 句子结构和句意来判别和区分不同的从句,正确使用引导 词。以 where 为例,试比较下列多种从句的区别。

You are to find it where you left it.(地点状语从句) Tell me the address where he lives.(定语从句,先行词 为 the address) I don't know where he came from.(宾语从句) Where he has gone is not known yet.(主语从句) This place is where they once hid.(表语从句)

(2)在两个分句间要有一个且只有一个连词,千万不能 按汉语习惯。 Because he was ill,he didn't come to school. =He was ill,so he didn't come to school.

(3)在时间、地点、条件、方式或让步状语从句中,若 从句的主语与主句的主语一致(或从句的主语为 it),从句

的谓语又包含动词 be 时,从句中的“主语+be”部分可 省略。 When(he was)asked about it,he kept silent. Fill in the blanks with articles when(they are)necessary. If(it is)possible,I'll explain it again later. She stood at the gate as if(she was)waiting for someone.

二、时间状语从句 1.“一??就??”的表达如下表 词类 从属 连词 as soon as 常用词 例句 He started as soon as he received the news. immediately, They phoned 副词 directly, instantly immediately they reached home.

the 名词/名 minute/moment/se 词短语 cond/instant, every/each time no 句型 结构 sooner...than..., hardly/scarcely...w hen...

They ran away the moment they saw the guard.Each time I was in trouble,he would stand by. No sooner had I arrived home than it began to rain.

2.till 和 until 的用法 (1)肯定句中,主句谓语动词必须是延续性动词,意为 “某一动作一直延续到某时间点才停止”。 He remained there till/until she arrived. (2)否定句中,主句谓语动词必须是非延续性动词,从 句为肯定式,意为“某动作直到某时间才开始”。 I was not aware that I forgot my ticket till/until I got to the station.

(3)till 不可置于句首,until 可以。 (4)强调和倒装句中,not...until 时被强调或置于句首。 It was not until you told me that I had any idea of it. Not until you told me did I have any idea of it. 应视为一个整体,同

3.before 和 since 的用法 (1)before 常用于表示“还未??就;不到??

就;??才;趁??;还没来得及”等含义。 We had sailed four days and four nights before we saw land. He rushed out of the house before I could say anything else.

(2)句型 It was/will be+时间段+before...意为“过了多 久才……”。It was not long before.../It will not be long before...意为“不久就??”。 It will be one year and a half before I come back. It was not long before he sensed the danger of the position.

(3)since

从句的谓语动词一般是短暂性动词,主句谓

语动词则是延续性动词或反复发生的动作。since 引导的从 句时态为一般过去时,主句时态为现在完成时或现在完成 进行时。 She has been working for the company since she left school.

(4)句型

It

is/has

been+时间段+since...意为“自

从??到现在多久了”。 It is a long time since I saw you last time. =I have not seen you for a long time. It has been two years since I was admitted to this key middle school. =I was admitted to this key middle school two years ago.

It is three years since I smoked a cigar. =It is three years since I stopped smoking a cigar.

三、原因状语从句 1.because,as,since,now 表: 引导词 位置 内涵 语气 能否回 能否 答 why 强调 能 能 that 的用法区别如下

主句前 直接 because 或后 原因



主句前 as since /now that 主句前 或后 已知 原因



不能 不能

—Why are you absent from the meeting? —Because I am ill. He is disappointed because he didn't get the position. As his mother was a great music lover, he lived with music from birth. Since his music style was new,he decided his hairstyle had to be new too!

2.除了状语从句外,一些介词短语也可以表示原因。 如:because of,thanks to,due to,owing to,on account of 等。 They were late because of the traffic. 3.for 引导表示原因的并列句,补充说明根据什么推 断出前一分句的结果。 He must have gone to bed, for the light is out.

四、地点状语从句 注意地点状语从句与定语从句的区别,试比较: This is the place where we used to live a few years ago. Let's go where we can find a better job.

五、目的状语从句与结果状语从句 1.so that 引导的目的状语从句及结果状语从句的区 别: (1)so that 引导目的状语从句时,只能置于主句之后, 从句谓语部分常需用情态动词 can,may,could 等,可

用 in order that 代替。后者更正式,引导的状语从句可置 于主句前或后。

(2)so that 引导结果状语从句时,从句的谓语部分一般 没有情态动词,其作用等于 so。试比较: We got up early so that we could catch the train.(此句 只强调早起的目的,结果未明) We got up early so that we caught the train.(此句表明 了早起的结果:赶上了火车)

2.so...that



such...that

引导结果状语从句的区

别:其规律由 so 与 such 的不同词性决定。such 是形容 词,修饰名词或名词词组,so 是副词,只能修饰形容词或 副词。常见以下几种句型结构: (1)so+形容词/副词+that从句。 He was so excited that he could not say a word.

(2)such+a/an+形容词+单数可数名词+that 从句。 It's such a good chance that we must not miss it. (3)such+形容词+复数名词/不可数名词+that 从句。 It was such fine weather that we went out for a walk. (4)so+形容词+a/an+可数名词单数形式+that 句。 从

试比较: Mike is such an honest worker that we all believe him. =Mike is so honest a worker that we all believe him. (5)so+many/much/few/little+名词+that 从句。在“两 多两少”(many/much/few/little)前要用 so 来修饰。 He earned so little money that he couldn't support himself.

3.除了状语从句外,不定式 in order to/so as to 等也 可以表示目的。 In order to get home earlier, we had to run all the way. 4.除了状语从句外,too...to,enough...to,so...as to,such(...)to 等不定式结构也可以表示结果。 We got up early enough to catch the train.

六、条件状语从句 1.条件状语从句分真实性(有可能实现的事情)与非真 实性(条件与事实相反或者在说话者看来不大可能实现的事 情)条件句。后者应使用虚拟语气,试比较: If you work hard,you'll make progress.(真实条件句) If you had worked harder,you would have passed the exam.(虚拟条件句)

2.“祈使句+and...”和“祈使句+or/otherwise...” 以上两种结构中的祈使句都表示条件,and或 or/otherwise后面的内容表示结果。 Climb to the top of the mountain and you'll see the whole city. =If you climb to the top of the mountain, you'll see the whole city. Hurry up,or/otherwise you'll be late. =If you don't hurry up,you'll be late.

3.“名词+and...”结构 此结构中的名词可改为 if 引导的条件状语从句,有时 也可改为由 when,after 引导的时间状语从句,and 后面 的句子表示主句内容。 Another sound and the enemy would discover us. =If we made another sound,the enemy would discover us. A few minutes and they went away. =When/After a few minutes had passed,they went away.

七、让步状语从句 1.as 引导让步状语从句时,需要使用倒装结构,表

示强调。被强调的部分可为名词、形容词、副词等。若名 词提前,要求省略冠词。

Tired as he was(=Though he was tired),he continued his work. Much as I respect him(=Though I respect him much),I can't agree to his proposal. Child as he is(=Although he is a child),he could raise a stone of 100 kilos.

2.while 引导让步状语从句,一般放在句首。 While(=Although)I don't like it, I will try to learn it well. 3.注意“no 句。 No matter how hard(=However hard)I have tried, I can't find the answer. matter+疑问词”引导的让步状语从

八、比较状语从句 注意两种特殊的比较状语从句结构: 1.the more...the more 结构。 The more you exercise, the healthier you will be. 2.A is to B what/as X is to Y 结构。 Food is to men what oil is to machines.

九、方式状语从句 1.方式状语从句表示动作的方式。as just 加强语气。 When in Rome,do as the Romans do. I did just as the teacher did. 2.as if/as though 引导方式状语从句时,常用虚拟语 气。 He talks as if he knew everything in the world. She spoke English so well as if she had been to America. 之前常可用

针对训练 Ⅰ.用适当的从属连词填空(每空一词) 1.________ it comes to a choice, I prefer to go traveling. 2.________ he grew older, he lost interest in everything except gardening. 3.I went on with my work ________ I finished washing all the clothes.

4.________ I was busy preparing for my final exam, I didn't reply to your email ________ ________ ________ I received it. 5.________ cleaning street is no more than an ordinary job, it contributes to the society. 6.________ ________ ________ I do, I will try my best to do it well. 7.Besides, I will tell him what you look like _______ _______ you can find each other easily.

8.However, some students were ________ tired ________ they couldn't move any more, so they fell behind.

答案 1. When 2. As 3. until 4. As; as soon as 7. so that 8. so; that

5. Although

6. No matter what

Ⅱ.完成句子 1.________________(无论哪国) you go, you should observe the law of the land. 2.The firefighters showed ________________(极大的 勇气) that they were highly praised by the government. 3.________________(无论身在何处), you can keep an intimate contact with the rest of the world.

4.I believe that you'll build a good friendship with the people around you ________________(只要你想). 5.There are some other factors that need to be considered,________________(即使你是正确的). 6.The task was difficult and the time was not planned well,________________(结果他没有按时完成任务).

7.You can't see the president of the university ______________(除非你预约). 8.Table tennis is such an interesting and popular game ________________(我们都喜欢玩).

答案 1. No matter which country 3. No matter where you are 5. even if you are right 6. so that he didn't finish it on time 7. unless you make an appointment 8. that we all like it 2. such great courage 4. as long as you want to

Ⅲ.语篇填空(用适当的词填空,注意使用从属连词) Gandhi was honored as the father of the Indian nation. He has been respected and beloved by the Indians with the belief __1__ he is an Indian national hero. He was born in India in 1869.__2__ is recorded, he got married at the age of 13, following the local custom. In 1888 he sailed to England, __3__ he studied law for three years and became a lawyer. __4__ his return to India, he was sent to South Africa to work on a law case.

In South Africa he was surprised to find __5__ the problem of racial discrimination was serious. There he formed an organization and this was __6__ he started to fight for equal rights.

Gandhi returned to India in 1915, __7__ India was controlled by the British. He led the Indians to fight for an end to the British rule and independence for his country. __8__ in the political movement many Indians including Gandhi were put in prison and it was still not sure __9__ they could gain independence, the struggles never stopped. The British government had to give in and India won its independence in 1947. Unfortunately Gandhi was shot by an Indian __10__ opposed his views and died on January 30th, 1948.

答案 1. that 7. when 2. As 3. where 4. On 5. that 9. whether 6. how

8. Although/Though

10. who/that


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