ASTM A27M-2003 通用碳素钢铸件
Designation: A 27/A 27M – 03
Standard Speci?cation for
Steel Castings, Carbon, for General Application1
This standard is issued under the ?xed designation A 27/A 27M; the number immediately following the designation indicates the year of original adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision. A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval. A superscript epsilon (e) indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval. This standard has been approved for use by agencies of the Department of Defense.
1. Scope * 1.1 This speci?cation covers carbon steel castings for general applications that require up to 70 ksi [485 MPa] minimum tensile strength.
NOTE 1—The grades covered by this speci?cation represent materials that are suitable for assembly with other steel castings or wrought steel parts by fusion welding. It is not intended to imply that all these grades possess the same degree of weldability or that the same welding techniques can be used on all castings. It is the responsibility of the purchaser to establish for himself a suitable welding technique.
A 370 Test Methods and De?nitions for Mechanical Testing of Steel Products2 A 732/A 732M Speci?cation for Castings, Investment, Carbon and Low Alloy Steel for General Application, and Cobalt Alloy for High Strength at Elevated Temperatures3 A 781/A 781M Speci?cation for Castings, Steel and Alloy, Common Requirements, for General Industrial Use3 3. General Conditions for Delivery 3.1 Material furnished to this speci?cation shall conform to the requirements of Speci?cation A 781/A 781M, including any supplementary requirements that are indicated in the purchase order. Failure to comply with the general requirements of Speci?cation A 781/A 781M constitutes nonconformance with this speci?cation. In case of con?ict between the requirements of this speci?cation and Speci?cation A 781/ A 781M, this speci?cation shall prevail. 4. Ordering Information 4.1 Orders for material under this speci?cation should include the following information in proper sequence. 4.1.1 Quantity, 4.1.2 Speci?cation, grade (1.2), and class (9.2), 4.1.3 Description of the casting by pattern number or drawing, 4.1.4 Options in the speci?cation, and 4.1.5 Supplementary requirements desired, including standards of acceptance. 5. Heat Treatment 5.1 All castings of Grades N-2, 60-30 [415-205], 65-35 [450-240], 70-36 [485-250], and 70-40 [485-275] shall be heat-treated by full annealing, normalizing, normalizing and tempering, or quenching and tempering. Unless otherwise speci?ed in the inquiry, contract, or order, the castings may be heat-treated by any one or combination of these heattreatments at the option of the manufacturer.
1.2 Several grades and two classes of steel castings are covered, as indicated below. The grade and class desired shall be speci?ed by the purchaser. 1.2.1 Grade N-1—Chemical analysis only. 1.2.2 Grade N-2—Heat-treated but not mechanically tested. 1.2.3 Grade U-60-30 [415-205]—Mechanically tested but not heat-treated. 1.2.4 Grades 60-30 [415-205], 65-35 [450-240], 70-36 [485-250], and 70-40 [485-275]—Heat-treated and mechanically tested. 1.2.5 Class 1 and Class 2 steel castings shall be speci?ed in accordance with 9.2. 1.3 The values stated in either inch-pound units or SI units are to be regarded separately as standard. Within the text, the SI units are shown in brackets. The values stated in each system are not exact equivalents; therefore, each system must be used independently of the other. Combining values from the two systems may result in nonconformance with the speci?cation. Inch-pound units are applicable for material ordered to Speci?cation A 27 and SI units for material ordered to Speci?cation A 27M. 2. Referenced Documents 2.1 ASTM Standards:
1 This speci?cation is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee A01 on Steel, Stainless Steel and Related Alloys and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee A01.18 on Castings. Current edition approved April 10, 2003. Published April 2003. Originally approved in 1991. Last previous edition approved in 2000 as A 27/ A 27M – 95 (2000).
Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol 01.03. Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol 01.02.
*A Summary of Changes section appears at the end of this standard.
Copyright ? ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959, United States.
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A 27/A 27M – 03
TABLE 1 Chemical Requirements
Grade (UNS No.)A Carbon, max Grade Grade Grade Grade Grade Grade Grade
A B B
Composition, % Manganese, max 0.75 0.60 0.75 0.60 0.70 0.70 1.20
Silicon, max 0.80 0.80 0.80 0.80 0.80 0.80 0.80
Sulfur, max 0.06 0.06 0.06 0.06 0.06 0.06 0.06
Phosphorus, max 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05
N-1 (J02500) N-2 (J03500) U-60-30 [415-205] (J02500) 60-30 [415-205] (J03000) 65-35 [450-240] (J03001) 70-36 [485-250] (J03501) 70-40 [485-275] (J02501)
0.25 0.35 0.25 0.30 0.30 0.35 0.25
Specify Class 1 or Class 2 in addition to grade designation (see 9.2). For each reduction of 0.01 % carbon below the maximum speci?ed, an increase of 0.04 % manganese above the maximum speci?ed will be permitted to a maximum of 1.40 % for Grade 70-40 [485-275] and 1.00 % for the other grades.
TABLE 2 Tensile Requirements
GradeA Grade Grade Grade Grade Grade
A B C
Tensile Strength, min, ksi [MPa] 60 60 65 70 70     
Yield Point, min, ksi [MPa] 30 30 35 36 40     
Elongation in 2 in. [50 mm], min, %B 22 24 24 22 22
Reduction of Area, min, % 30 35 35 30 30
U-60-30 [415-205] 60-30 [415-205] 65-35 [450-240] 70-36 [485-250] 70-40 [485-275]C
Specify Class 1 or Class 2 in addition to grade designation (see 9.2). When ICI test bars are used in tensile testing as provided for in this speci?cation, the gage length to reduced section diameter ratio shall be 4 to 1. Grade 70-40 [485-275] may be used to meet the requirement of Grade 70-36 [485-250], when agreed upon between the manufacturer and the purchaser.
5.1.1 Heat-treatment shall be performed after castings have been allowed to cool from the pouring temperature to below the transformation range. 5.2 Furnace temperatures for heat-treating shall be regulated by the use of pyrometers. 6. Chemical Composition 6.1 The steel shall conform to the requirements as to chemical composition prescribed in Table 1. Product analysis tolerances shall conform to the Product Analysis Tolerances shown in Speci?cation A 781/A 781M. When residual element chemical content is of interest to the purchaser, S54 may be considered. 7. Tensile Properties 7.1 Except for Grades N-1 and N-2, one tension test shall be performed on each heat and the mechanical properties thus determined shall conform to the requirements speci?ed in Table 2. The tension test shall be performed in accordance with Test Methods and De?nitions A 370. 7.2 Test bars shall be poured in special blocks similar to those shown in Fig. 1 of Speci?cation A 781/A 781M and from the same heat as the casting represented. 7.3 Test coupons may be cut from the heat-treated (if required) castings or cast integrally with the castings at the producer’s option. 7.4 The test bars for heat-treated castings shall be heattreated in production furnaces to the same procedure as the castings they represent. When speci?ed by the purchaser, the test bars shall be heat-treated with the castings. 7.5 Test specimens shall be machined to the form and dimensions shown in Figs. 4 and 5 of Test Methods and De?nitions A 370.
7.6 If any specimen is machined improperly or if ?aws are revealed by machining or during testing, the specimen may be discarded and another substituted from the same heat. 7.7 When this speci?cation is applied to investment castings, test coupons and tension test specimens shall be obtained and prepared as directed in S3.2 of Speci?cation A 732/ A 732M. Test coupons shall be heat treated as prescribed in 7.4. 8. Retests 8.1 If the results of the mechanical tests for any heat, lot, or casting do not conform to the requirements speci?ed, retests are permitted as outlined in Test Methods and De?nitions A 370. At the manufacturer’s option, castings may be reheattreated and retested. When castings are reheat-treated, they may not be reaustenitized more than 3 times without the approval of the purchaser. Testing after reheat treatment shall consist of the full number of specimens taken from locations complying with the speci?cation or order. 9. Rework and Retreatment 9.1 All welds shall be inspected to the same quality standards as were used to inspect the casting. 9.2 If postweld heat-treatment is required, Class 1 must be speci?ed along with the grade, and the welds to be heat-treated must be de?ned. If postweld heat-treatment is not required, Class 2 must be speci?ed along with the grade. 10. Keywords 10.1 castings; general application; steel
A 27/A 27M – 03
SUPPLEMENTARY REQUIREMENTS A list of standardized supplementary requirements for use at the option of the purchaser is described in Speci?cation A 781/A 781M. Those which are considered suitable for use with this speci?cation are listed below by title only. Additional supplementary requirements suitable for use with this speci?cation at the option of the purchaser are described below. One or more of the supplementary requirements indicated below may be included in the purchaser’s order or contract. When so included, a supplementary requirement shall have the same force as if it were in the body of the speci?cation. Supplementary requirements details not fully described shall be agreed upon between the purchaser and the supplier, but shall not negate any of the requirements in the body of the speci?cation. S1. Magnetic Particle Examination S2. Radiographic Examination S3. Liquid Penetrant Examination S4. Ultrasonic Examination S6. Certi?cation S8. Marking S9. Charpy Impact Test S10. Hardness Test S12. Test Report S13. Unspeci?ed Elements S14. Tension Test from Castings S51. Permissible Variations in Dimensional Tolerances for Castings Made from Mounted Patterns S51.1 Tolerances for commercial steel castings (S51.1.1) made from mounted patterns and the surfaces that are not to be machined shall be in accordance with Table 3. Metal match plate patterns and precise molding methods can produce closer tolerances than the values shown in Table 3. Complex casting designs may require different permissible variations than those listed in Table 3. S51.1.1 The term “commercial castings” does not cover castings requiring special ?xtures for gaging, or ?nishing
TABLE 3 Normally Expected Deviation of Linear Casting Dimensions from Design Dimensions
Blueprint Dimension, in. [mm] Up to 3 , incl Over 3 to 7 [75 to 175], incl Over 7 to 20 [175 to 500], incl Over 20 to 100 [500 to 2500], incl +4?32 +5?32 +6?32 +8?32 Tolerances, in. [mm]     ?3?32 ?4?32 ?5?32 ?6?32    
castings by grinding to special tolerance gages beyond the normal requirements as listed in Table 3. S52. Gate and Riser Projections for Castings Made from Mounted Patterns S52.1 Castings shall have gates and risers removed in such a manner that no riser or gate stub projects or a depression is made beyond or below the casting design contour in an amount that would exceed the values given in Table 4. S53. Weight Deviation for Castings Made from Mounted Patterns S53.1 The allowable deviations from the average casting weight are shown in Table 5. S54. Chemical Analysis for Residual Elements S54.1 The manufacturer shall determine the percentage of elements speci?ed as follows, using procedures speci?ed in
TABLE 4 Gate and Riser Projection Tolerances
Riser or Gate Maximum Dimension, in. [mm] Up to 4 , incl Over 4 to 8 [100 to 200], incl Over 8 to 20 [200 to 500], incl Over 20 to 30 [500 to 750], incl Over 30  Maximum Projection, in. [mm] ? ? 3?8 1?2 3?4
Maximum Depression, in. [mm] ? ? 1?8 1?4 1?4
    
    
A 27/A 27M – 03
TABLE 5 Allowable DeviationA from Average Casting Weight
Casting Weight, lb [kg] Up to 100 , incl Over 100 to 500 [45 to 230], incl Over 500 to 10 000 [230 to 4540], incl Over 10 000 
Positive Deviation, % 8.0 6.5 5.0 3.0
Negative Deviation, % 8.0 5.0 3.0 2.5
Speci?cation A 781/A 781M. The chemical analysis thus determined shall conform to the following requirements:
Copper, max, % Nickel, max, % Molybdenum, max, % Chromium, max, % 0.50 0.50 0.25 0.50
Deviations do not apply to mass as calculated from a design drawing.
S54.2 Total content of these residual elements, maximum percent 1.00.
SUMMARY OF CHANGES Committee A01 has identi?ed the location of selected changes to this standard since the last issue (A 27/A 27M – 95 (2000)) that may impact the use of this standard. (1) Added the UNS Numbers to the grades in Table 1.
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