新人教选修8 Unit2 Words and phrases_图文

Important words and phrases

A:重点单词

1. antique adj 古老的珍贵的 an antique vase 一个古董花瓶 n 文物古董 The palace is full of priceless antiques. 宫殿里充满了 许多无价的古董。

2.musical adj 音乐的 musical instrument 乐器 music n musician n 音乐家 He is a talented musician. 他是一个有天赋的音乐家。

differ v ①不同②意见相左
. differ

with sb. on/about /over sth.

. differ in… . A differ from B
different adj be different from
difference n make a/no difference

Exercises
(1) We differ _____him _________ on/about/over with

用介词 from, with, on, about, over 或 in 填空。

(2) The two nations differ __ in culture and religion.

that question.

(3) The climate here differs from _________

2.exact:adj精确的,准确的

1)I can't remember the exact date of the
accident.

2) He is in his mid-fifties, well, fifty-six
to be exact=exactly speaking.(准确地说)

adv exactly 确实如此(表示赞同)
not exactly 不完全是,不完全对
---You are leaving, aren't you?
---Not exactly, I'm just going on holiday.

3. undertake vt.
(undertook; undertaken)
①着手,从事,承担

The procedure is difficult to undertake,

of course.
当然, 这个过程很难实施。

The scientist undertakes the

experiment.

I can undertake the responsibility for the changes.
我愿意承担这些变革的责任。

The lawyer undertook a new case.
那个律师接了一个新的案子。

② 承诺

undertake to do sth. 答应做某事 undertake +that 从句
…….

保证

4. pay off
① (事业、计划等) 成功,有回报 Vi
sth pay off
.You must find this hard at first, but your hard work will pay off soon or later. .Finally his determination paid off.

② 偿还,还清 Vt

In the end he paid off all his debts.

pay money for sth. 付钱买??
pay for sth.付款,付出代价 pay back 还钱,报复

pay sb by the hour 按小时付报酬

5. altogether 总共, 完全地
That is an altogether different matter. Altogether Dolly lived six years.

6.arbitrary 任意的 随意的 I didn’t know anything about this book so my choice was arbitrary.

7. object v. objection n.
反对
On the other hand , Dolly’s appearance raised a storm of objections and had a great impact on the media and public imagination.
另一方面, 多莉的出现引来了巨大的反对 激发了传媒的热炒和公众的想像力。

object to sth object to (one’s) doing sth

object + that从句 反对说...
have/take/make/feel an objection to (doing) sth. 对……表示反对 raise an objection to sth. 对……提出异议

object n.宾语,物体 objective adj.真实的,客观 的,无偏见的

I feel a strong objection to getting up early. 我极不愿意早起。 Have you any objection to my opening the window? 你反对我打开窗子吗? My main objection to the plan is that it costs too much. 我反对该计划的主要理由是它费用太高。

We object to being treated like this.
我们抗议这种待遇。 I object to the plan.
我反对这项计划。

I object that he is too young to take

that position.
轻不适合那个职位。

我提出反对意见: 他太年

8.impact n 冲击 巨大的影响

have/make an impact on sth 对….产生巨大的影响
influence /effect

9.cast down 使沮丧 (常用被动)
观察示例:

Cloning Scientists were cast down to find that Dolly’s illness were more appropriate to a much older animal.
克隆科学家沮丧地发现多莉的病更容易在年 老的羊身上。

Don’t be so cast down.

Just keep up your spirits.
不要这么沮丧, 打起精神来! He was cast down by the result

of the test.

10. obtain vt.获得,赢得
Meanwhile you will obtain a lot of information.
同时你将获得大量的知识。

She obtained her doctor’s degree in 1996.
她1996年获得博士学位。

The books can be obtained from the library.
这些书可以在图书馆里取得。

His achievement obtained him great fame.
他的成就使得他获得很大的名声。

11. forbid vt. 过去式 forbade /forbad
过去分词forbidden

Forbidden City紫禁城
Governments became nervous and
many forbade research into human

cloning.

政府开始感到不安, 有许多政府

禁止对克隆的研究。

forbid

sth. doing sth. sb. to do sth. sb. from doing sth. be forbidden to do sth

即时练习:
完成下列句子

to the students (1) The school forbids ______ ___ _______ __ ______ smoke (禁止学生吸烟). enter ___ the _____ (2) He is forbidden to _____ room (进入这个房间).
him to drink wine (3)His parents forbid __________________. 他的父母不准他喝酒。

Smoking should be forbidden in
public places.
公共场所应禁止吸烟。

Her father forbid her to go out alone.
她父亲不许她单独外出。

I forbid you from entering my

study.

12. accumulate 积累,积聚 vt.& vi Some countries such as China and the UK continued to accumulate evidence of the abundant medical aid that cloning could provide.
有些国家比如中国和英国继续收集 克隆能提供丰富的医疗帮助的证据。

He accumulated fortune by hard work.他因努力工作而积蓄了一笔财富。 The purpose of education is not just accumulating information.
教育的目的不仅仅是积累知识。

Dust accumulated during my absence.我不在期间灰尘积聚了起来。

accumulation n. 积聚
如: the accumulation of knowledge
知识的积聚

13. in favour of ①赞成②有利于 Is he in favour of cloning or against cloning? 他赞成还是反对
克隆?

The score was 80 to 78 in favour of the guest team.
比分是80比78,客队获胜。

The exchange rate is in our favour today.

in one's favour 对某人有利 do sb a favour = do a favour for sb.帮某人一个忙 ask a favour of sb 求人帮一个忙

14.owe vt.欠(钱、物、人情等)
(1)owe sb. sth.=owe sth. to sb.欠某人某物 owe...to... 把??归功于??

owe it to sb. that...多亏某人/归功于

(2)owing to“因为”+n/代词/动名词/名从

[即学即练7](1)Don’t forget you

still owe______ 150 yuan to the wine
shop.别忘了,你还欠酒店150元钱呢。
owes his success to hard (2)He ______

work and practice. 他把他的成功归功于努力工作和实

践。

(3)If I have improved in any way, I

______ owe it all to my teacher.如果说我有一
些进步,这应该全部归功于我的老师。 (4)You ______ owe me an apology. 你得向我道歉。 (5)We should do the duty which we owe to our country.我们应对国家尽 ______ 我们应尽的义务。

(6)I ______ owe it to you that I finished my work in time. 多亏你帮忙,我才及时完成了工作。

Owing to the rain, they could not come. (7)_________
由于下雨,他们不能来了。

15. retire vi. ①退休 ②离开 He retired at the age of 65.
他65岁退休。

He will soon retire from the army.
他不久将退役。

The men went on talking while the ladies retired. 男人们继续交谈
, 而女士们退到了客厅。

retired adj. 退休的 retirement n.退休

16.bother V. 打扰, 麻烦,费事 n. 麻烦
bother sb with/about sth.
为某事打扰或麻烦某人

bother to do sth.特意/费心做某事 It bothers sb.that/to do sth.
使某人苦恼的是…… Don’t bother. 不用麻烦 without any bother毫不费力地

Don’t bother yourself about me.
别为我担心。

Does the noise bother you much?
那噪音使你深感困扰吗? — Shall I help you? 要我帮忙吗?

— Don’t bother. I’ll do it myself.
不用麻烦, 我会自己做。

Don’t bother to call. 不用打电话来。

bother n. I found the house without any bother.
我毫不费事地找一了那座房子。

What a bother you are!
你真讨厌!

17.strike vi&vt (struck;struck/stricken)

1)A big earthquake struck the 侵袭 area. 突然想到 2)A good idea struck me as I was reading the newspaper. 3)When we arrived, it was striking twelve.
敲响几点

4)The workers are on strike for better working conditions. 5)All the visitors were deeply struck by the beauty of the 打动 West Lake. 6)strike a match划火柴

罢工,为...而斗争

strike sb. on/in the +身体部位

~ ...into one's heart 使...刻苦铭心
be/go on ~ 罢工 be struck by...被...打动/袭击/侵袭

it strikes sb that... =it hit/ occurs to sb that... 某人突然想到

18. The car manufacturers changed the car models from time

to time.
汽车制造商不时地改变车的型号。

from time to time 有时,偶尔

= occasionally=now and
then/again=sometimes= at times

19.in vain

徒劳地,白费力气地
All his father's suggestions were in vain.
他父亲的一切劝告都无效。

I tried to persuade him, but in vain. 我试图说服他,但无效

20. resist vt. 抵抗, 对抗 They resisted the attack.
他们抵抗那次攻击。

She resisted being carried off.
她拒绝被带走。

She could not resist the temptation.
她无法抗拒那项诱惑。

名师一线讲坛

can’t/couldn’t resist doing sth. 禁不住干某事 resist doing sth.抵制干某事 resistant adj.抵抗的,有抵抗力的 be resistant to对……有抵抗力 resistance n.抗拒,反对

21.in good/poor condition 情况好/坏 He was obviously in good condition.
他的身体显然很健康。

After several years, the car is in bad /poor condition.
仅仅几年后,这车的状况就很差了。

on/under no condition(=not at all) 一点也不;决不 on condition that... 条件是...


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