西方文化导论Unit6_图文

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Interpretation of Cultural Terms

Interpretation of Cultural Terms

asceticism 修行: a theory or practice which advocates spiritual improvement by living a particularly hard life, as is seen in the experiences of some religious practice

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Comprehension Exercises

Comprehension Exercises

Multiple choice. (1) The bourgeoisie was a result of ____ production in terms of wage-payment and profit. A. mass B. agricultural C. industrial D. commercial

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Comprehension Exercises

Comprehension Exercises

Multiple choice. (2) The Renaissance was the ____ stage of the Middle Ages before the modern epoch.

A. transitional
B. last

C. initial
D. preparatory

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Comprehension Exercises

Comprehension Exercises

Multiple choice. (3) The earliest university in Europe was the one established in _______ .

A. Berlin
B. Rome

C. Bologna
D. Oxford

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Comprehension Exercises

Comprehension Exercises

Multiple choice. (4) The medieval civilization met its climax during the _________.

A. 14th century
B. 13th century

C. 12th century
D. 11th century

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Comprehension Exercises

Comprehension Exercises

Multiple choice. (5) Which of the following is not the inspiration for the Renaissance?

A. The break-up of feudal structures.
B. The emergence of national monarchies.

C. The rise of folk culture and popular literature.
D. The revival of religious beliefs.

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Comprehension Exercises

Comprehension Exercises

Multiple choice. (1) The Renaissance made its first appearance in the city of _______ . A. Venice B. Paris C. Florence D. London

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Comprehension Exercises

Comprehension Exercises

Multiple choice. (2) The core idea of the Renaissance was _____ .

A. rationalism
B. realism

C. humanism
D. classicism

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Comprehension Exercises

Comprehension Exercises

Multiple choice. (3) The most important reason for the emergence of the Renaissance in Italy is _______ . A. Italy’s prosperous trade B. the variety of urban social life C. the use of Latin as a common language D. that the newly emerging capitalists sought to oppose feudal and divine dominance of society

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Comprehension Exercises

Comprehension Exercises

Multiple choice. (4) The major boost of Humanism is _______ .

A. the fall of Constantinople
B. the prosperity of the city of Florence

C. the prosperous trade and production of handicraft
D. the rich variety of urban social life

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Comprehension Exercises

Comprehension Exercises

Multiple choice. (5) Which of the following is not the major principle of humanism? A. Literature should represent the feelings of ordinary humans. B. Science should produce benefits for mankind. C. Education should develop divine spirit and classical culture. D. Man should become central in everything.

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Comprehension Exercises

Comprehension Exercises

Please match the following artists and writers with their representative works. a. Gargantua (1) Paphael Sanzio b. Essais (2) Da Vinci c. Canterbury Tales (3) Dante d. Don Quixote (4) William Shakespeare e. The Divine Comedy (5) Geoffrey Chaucer f. The Last Supper (6) Michel Montaigne g. A Mid-summer (7) Miguel de Cervantes Night’s Dream (8) Francois Rabelais h. The School of Athens

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Comprehension Exercises

Comprehension Exercises

True of false questions. T (1) Individualism was the foundation of social ideology __ during the Renaissance. F (2) Dante’s most important works On Monarchy shows most __ of his humanist ideas over which he was meditating during years of exile. T (3) Petrarch opposed the papal authority and other supreme __ authorities by exemplifying his attitudes towards T Aristotle. __ (4) The Renaissance and humanism greatly contributed to the T __ occurrence of Enlightenment and bourgeois revolution. (5) Humanism helped spark the Reformation, while the latter hindered the development of the former.

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Comprehension Exercises

Comprehension Exercises

Fill in the blanks. (1) The Renaissance was to recover ancient _______________ culture and art ; while the Reformation was to recover ancient __________________ Christian theology . (2) With far-reaching political, economic and social effects, the Reformation became a basis for the founding of ______________ Protestantism , which emerged as one of the three major branches of Christianity. (3) Martin Luther developed the idea of justification by faith and attacked the sale of indulgences by Tetzel from the Vatican Church by ______________________________________________ nailing his famous 95 theses on the church door at Wittenberg.

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Comprehension Exercises

Comprehension Exercises

Fill in the blanks. (4) Calvin’s theory of Predestination conformed to expectations of ____________ bourgeoisie . (5) Calvin practiced his democratic and republican system on the basis of principles in ____________________ the New Testament .

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Comprehension Exercises

Comprehension Exercises

Please match the following scientists with their great achievement. (1) Galileo (2) Copernicus (3) William Harvey (4) Newton

a. dissection of human bodies
b. establishment of the modern study of optics c. heliocentrism d. systemic circulation e. invention of the pendulum clock

(5) Andreas Vesalius

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Comprehension Exercises

Comprehension Exercises

Fill in the blanks. (1) Francis Bacon was the founder of _____________________ experimental science and
____________ materialism .

(2) Thomas ________________ Hobbes established mechanical materialism. (3) “I am thinking, therefore I exist” was spoken by _______________ Rene Descartes . (4) The idea that men could enjoy comparatively limited freedom if he built up contact with God or the universe was regarded as ________________ human salvation the theory of . (5) Rene Descartes also provided the mechanistic method of _____________ Cartesianism reasoning called .

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Comprehension Exercises

Comprehension Exercises

True or false questions. __ F (1) Cultural salon was founded in order to spread the GraecoRoman culture. __ T (2) The discussions in the cultural salon helped to improve cultural manners. __ T (3) The French Academy derives from a club of eight members discussing questions of common interest. __ T (4) Drama was a vigorous and popular cultural activity during the Renaissance in France. __ T (5) Drama in this period focused on moral irony, formal beauty as well as brevity and understatement.


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