Wuxun High School
Gerund 动名词 Participle 分词
Structure : to do
Negative (否定): not to do Passive voice: to be done
(1). 主语 Subject
To get enough sleep at night is important. It____________________________________. is important to get enough sleep at night
It is adj. (for sb) to do sth. It is + a pleasure/an honor/a pity to do.
It takes sb +time to do.
It is not good for you to smoke.
It is a pleasure to have dinner with you.
It only took two years to complete the project.
(2). 表语 Predicative
To see is to believe. My job
is to teach you English.
is to study hard 努力学习). Your task ______________(
(3) 宾语 Object
These days everyone wants to get rich fast.
like to do
manage to do
常用动词不定式作宾语的动词有: fail, happen, mean, wish, hope, decide, + to do refuse, offer, learn, agree，etc.
I hope to hear from you soon.
I decided not to stay.
Students thought______________________. it interesting to play think computer games. 形式宾语 consider it + adj.+ to do find make feel
She thought it unnecessary to argue with him.
The teacher told me to clean the blackboard.
allow, cause, ask, advise, expect, force, permit, persuade, tell, want, warn, teach等. + sb to do
(4). 宾补 Complement
The doctor advised him to go to the south.
当遇到下列动词时,不定式省略to: watch let 五看 see 三使 make look at notice observe have
I made him do his work.
He ______________________by was made to do his work me.
See sb do sth --- sb be seen to do
He was seen ___ from the tree and get hurt. A.fall B. to fall C. falling D. fallen
改错: He was heard talk to his mother for
The topics to be discussed at tomorrow’s meeting is concerned about the Olympics 2008 to worry about（没有什么可担心的） There is nothing___________.
(5). 定语 Attributive
a room to live in He is looking for__________. （一间可以住的房子）
---What do you think of the school? ---It is a very good _____. A. school to study in B. school for children to study C. studying school D. school to study *我想要几本书在旅途中看。 a few books to read during the journey I’d like________________________________.
(6) 状语 Adverbial
I came here to see you. He got up early to catch the train.
2.表原因 3.表结果 1.表目的
in order to , so as to ,
We were very excited to hear the news. This room is big enough to hold us. He lifted a rock only to drop it on his own feet.
enough…to, too…to, only to, etc.
1.____ late in the morning , Bob turned off the alarm. A. To sleep B. Sleeping C. Sleep D. Having slept 2001春季高考 第21题
In 1935 he left home never to return.
1. 作主语 2. 作表语
3. 作宾语 4. 作宾语补足语 5. 作定语 6. 作状语
Tense and Voice （时态与语态）
to be doing
to have been to have done done to have been ---------doing
(1).They pretended not to see us.
(2). He pretended to be sleeping.
(3).She pretended to have known it before.
巩固练习3 1.The boy pretended ____ when his mother entered. A. reading B. to read C. to be reading D. being read 2. Do let your mother know all the truth. She appears_____ everything. ( 01年高考) A. to tell B. to be told C. to be telling D. to have been told
3. Charles Babbage is generally considered ____ the first computer.(MET93 34) A. to invent B. inventing C. to have invented D. having invented
4.The Emperor ordered the wonderful cloth _____ for him without delay. A. to have woven B. to be woven C. to be weaving D. to weave
不定式与疑问词连用: ?who, which, when, how, what,whom,whether 等 连用，在句中起名词作用，可充当主语、表语、宾语等。
I don’t know whether to accept the invitation or not.
How to solve the problem is very important.
My question is when to start.
(1).不定式中的动词上文已出现过,下文要 省略该动词. e.g.: Would you like to go with me ? Yes,______. A. I’d like to B.I’d like to go (2). 不定式是to be 结构, be 不可省. e.g.: Would you like to be a teacher? Yes, _______. A.I’d like to be. B. I’d like to.
巩固练习4 1. ---Did you get a job? --- No, I ___ , but it’s no use. A. expected B. tried to C. managed to D. planned 2. The boy wanted to ride his bicycle in the street, but his mother told him ____. A. not to B. not to do C. not do it D. do not to
不定式用在介词but, except, besides后时,如 果这些介词前有行为动词do的各种形式,那么 介词后的不定式不带to, 相反则带to.
cry .(cry) (1). She could do nothing but ____ ? (2). I have no choice but____. to go (go) sleep . ? (3).What do you like ____ to do besides____ (do, sleep)
(eat, give up, finish, explain, tell) give up his 1.My teacher was made to _______ teaching because of poor health. explaining/to be explained 2.The sentence wants________________ once more. 3.We find it impossible for the work to be finished ahead of time. __________ to eat oily food 4.The patient was warned not ______ after the operation. to have told you about it, but I 5.I meant _________ forgot to do so.
1. (MET92 14) --I usually go there by train. --Why not ____ by boat for a change? A. to try going B. trying to go C. to try and go D. try going
2.Rather than ___ on a crowded bus, he always prefers ____ a bicycle. (MET94 22) A. ride; ride B. riding; ride C. ride; to ride D. to ride; riding
3. While shopping, people sometime can’t help ____ into buying something they don’t really need. (96上海14) A.to pursue B. persuading C. being persuaded D. be persuaded
4. She can’t help ____ the house because she’s busy making a cake. (97 上海12) A. to clean B. cleaning C. cleaned D. being cleaned
5. Robert is said ____ abroad, but I don’t know what country he studied in. A.to have studied B. to study C. to be studying D. to have been studying
6. The purpose of new technologies is to make life easier, ____ it more difficult. A.not make B. not to make C. not making D. don’t make
7. Having a trip abroad is certainly good for the old couple, but it remains ____ whether they will enjoy it. A.to see B. to be seen C. seeing D. see
8. The mother didn’t know ____ to blame for the broken glass as it happened while she was out. A. who B. when C. how D. why
9. Paul doesn’t have to be made ____. He always works hard. A.learn B. to learn C. learned D. learning
10.—The light in the office is still on. --- Oh, I forgot ______. A.turning it off B. turn it off C. to turn it off D. having turned it off
11. I would love ____ to the party last night but I had to work extra hours to finish a report. A. to go B. to have gone C. going D. having gone
12. I’ve worked with children before, so I know what ____ in my new job. A. expected B. to expect C. to be expecting D. expects
13. Little Jim should love ____ to the theatre this evening. A. to be taken B. to take C. being taken D. taking
14. The teacher asked us ____ so much noise. A. don’t make B. not make C. not making D. not to make
?不定式作定语时，应放在被修饰词的后面，而 且放在其他后置定语之后。 1. 不定式做定语与所修饰的词之间有三种关系：
? ? ? ? ? ?
(1)动宾关系 I have a lot of work to do. (2)主谓关系 He is always the first to come. (3)同位关系 We all have a chance to go to college.
? ? ? ? ?
? ? ?
had better+ (not) do sth. 最好（不）做某事 Why (not) do sth.? …prefer to do/prefer doing …prefer + n./doing A +to + n./doing B …prefer + to do A rather than (to) do B …would rather (not) do sth. …would rather do A than (do) B …would rather + 句子（过去式） （虚拟语气） 要做……
*在the first, the second…，the last和only之后，只能用to do。 如：He was the last to leave the classroom ． ? *如果understand，realize, know用在begin, start, attempt, intend后，只能用to do。 如：I began to understand the truth． ? *表示目的的不定式的否定式一般不用not to do,而用in order not to do或so as not to do。 如：(√)In order not to be seen, he came into the room through the window．
(×)Not to be seen, he came into the room through the window．
(√)He came into the room through the window so as not to be seen． *so as to do一般不放在句首。 (√)He get up at five this morning so as to catch the early bus． (X) So as to catch the early bus，he got up at five this morning．
1.My teacher was made _____ his teaching because of poor health. A.giving up B. to give up C. give up D. given up 2.The sentence wants ____ once more. A.explained B. to explain C. being explained D. explaining
3.The Arctic is considered ____ the northern part of the Atlantic. A.having been B. to have been C. to be D. being
4.The Emperor ordered the wonderful cloth _____ for him without delay. A.to have woven B. to be woven C. to be weaving D. to weave 5.I found the German language hard ____. A.learned B. learning C. to be learned D. to learn
6.—The light in the office is still on. --- Oh, I forgot ______. A.turning it off B. turn it off C. to turn it off D. having turned it off
7.---How do you deal with the disagreement between the company and the customers? ---The key ____ the problem is to meet the demand ____ by the customers. A.to solving, making B. to solving, made C. to solve, making D. to solve, made 8. ---What do you think of the school? ----It is a very good _____. A.school to study in B. school for children to study C. studying school D. school to study
9. ---Did you get a job? --- No, I ___ , but it’s no use. A.expected B. tried to C. managed to D. planned
10.We find it impossible for the work ___ ahead of time. A.to finish B. finishing C. being finished D. to be finished
11.---I usually go to Shanghai by train. ----Why not ___ there by boat for a change? A.to try to go B. try going C. to try going D. try to go
12.___ a living, she had to work from morning till night. A.To make B. Made C. Making D. To have made
13. I would rather starve to death than ___ for food. A.beg B. begging C. begged D. to beg
14.The boy pretended ____ when his mother entered. A.reading B. to read C. to be reading D. being read
1. Robert is said ____ abroad, but I don’t know what country he studied in. A. to have studied B. to study C. to be studying D. to have been studying
2. The purpose of new technologies is to make life easier, ____ it more difficult. A. not make B. not to make C. not making D. don’t make 3. I’ve worked with children before, so I know what ____ in my new job. A. expected B. to expect C. to be expecting D. expects
4. Having a trip abroad is certainly good for the old couple, but it remains ____ whether they will enjoy it. A. to see B. to be seen C. seeing D. see 5. It is said in Australia there is more land than the government knows ____. A. it what to do with B. what to do with it C. what to do it with D. to do what with it
6. The mother didn’t know ____ to blame for the broken glass as it happened while she was out. A. who B. when C. how D. why
7. Paul doesn’t have to be made ____. He always works hard. A. learn B. to learn C. learned D. learning
8. We agreed ____ here but so far she hasn’t turned up yet. A. having met B. meeting C. to meet D. to have met 9. The boy wanted to ride his bicycle in the street, but his mother told him ____. A. not to B. not to do C. not do it D. do not to
10. The patient was warned ____ oily food after the operation. A. to eat not B.eating not C. not to eat D.not eating
11. I would love ____ to the party last night but I had to work extra hours to finish a report. A. to go B. to have gone C. going D. having gone
12. Charles Babbage is generally considered ____the first computer. A. to invent B. inventing C. to have invented D. having invented
13. Little Jim should love ____ to the theatre this evening. A. to be taken B. to take C. being taken D. taking 14. ____ late in the afternoon, Bob turned off the alarm. A. To sleep B. Sleeping C. Sleep D. Having sleep 15. The teacher asked us ____ so much noise. A. don’t make B. not make C. not making D. not to make
1.To see you is glad. （作主语） =It’s glad to see you. ? 2.I want to see you. (作宾语） ? 3.I want him to see you. （作宾补） ? 4.My hope is to see you. (作表语） ? 5.He is the man to see you. （作定语） （作原因状语） ? 6.I’m glad to see you. （作目的状语） ? 7.I went to see you. ? 8.He went so early as to see you （作结果状语） ? 9. To tell you the truth, I don’t agree with you.
10. How to solve this problem is very important.
一. Structure： doing Negative： not doing 二. 时态和语态
主动语态 ing 一般式 完成式
making having made (不作定语）
being made having been made (不作定语
1. 作主语 2. 作宾语 3. 作定语 4. 作表语
1.作主语: Collecting information is very important to business.
Seeing is believing. e.g. ---What made him so unhappy? ---____ the ticket for the football match.
A.Having been lost C. Because of losing Key : ________ D B. Lost D. Losing
Losing the ticket for the football match made him so unhappy
对着打翻了的牛奶哭是没用的。 ? Crying over the spilt milk is no use. ? It is no use crying over the spilt milk. ? 类似的还有： ? It is no good doing sth. ? It is no use doing sth.
I enjoy learning English. How about meeting outside the theatre?
appreciate, deny, resist, stand, imagine, suggest, mind, finish, enjoy, keep, practise, miss, avoid, delay, excuse, escape, consider, can’t help, 等。
如:1） 你介意我在这儿抽烟吗? Would you mind my smoking here ? 2）这女孩被告知每天练习三个小时的钢琴. The girl was told to practise playing the piano for three hours every day． 3） Good news keeps coming.
e.g. insist on, prevent …from, depend on, feel like, be fond of, succeed in, be proud of, excuse … for , apologize for, look forward to, object to , be used to, be opposed to, …etc. Prep. 后通常用~ing形式作宾语. ? e.g. daring The boy stood still without __________ (dare) to raise his head because of ___________ having broken (break) a vase.
to do 和doing 的区别:
remember to do forget to do stop to do go on to do try to do regret to do mean to do remember doing forget doing stop doing go on doing try doing regret doing mean doing
动词如： permit ,allow，admit，forbid， imagine，consider 有不同的用法: ? ①V + sb to do sth & V + doing sth
The doctor advised me not to go to bed too late. Please permit me to introduce myself to you first． You surely can't consider him to be a selfish man． My parents forbid me to stay out after mid-night． I allowed the children to play in my room for anothe five minutes.
advise／permit／allow／admit／forbid／ consider doing sth. e.g. ：
The little boy admitted having broken the glass. ? They shouldn't allow parking in the street ; it's too narrow. ? I forbid smoking in my house． ? We do not permit smoking in the office．
My hobby is collecting stamps and fishing. ? His job is teaching.
What’s the difference between them?
My hobby is fishing.
a walking stick ? A swimming pool 区别 ? A sleeping car
The walking man
The swimming girl
The sleeping boy
insisted on coming to the party. ? Tom insisted on my coming to the party.
can hardly imagine Peter sailing across the Atlantic Ocean in five days.
在动词或词组need, want, require, be worth, deserve, etc. 后的动名词表示被动意义: ? Your composition needs improving. ? Your composition needs to be improved. ? The book is worth reading a second time. ? The book is worthy to be read/of being read a second time.
Wuxun High School
Gerund 动名词 Participle 分词
-ing 分词 -ed 分词
making being made 一般式 完成式 Having made Having been made
主动语态 一般式 完成式
由于分词具有形容词性和副词性,在句 子中不能充当具有名词特征的主语和 宾语.
现在 分词 过去 分词
× × × ×
What ’ s the difference 1.作定语 between -ed and –ing -ing分词和-ed分词修饰名词有 participle? 分词表示“进行” 在时态上: -ing 前置位&后置位. -ed分词表示“完成 前置位 e.g.在语态上 :: -ing分词表示“主动”-ed分词表示 “被动
1. the rising sun --the sun which is rising 进行 2. He is a retired worker. --He is a worker who has already retired. 完成
3. The problem bothering us is the lack of money.
The problem (which is) bothering us is the lack of money 主动 ? 4. These are goods imported from Japan. --- These are goods (which were) imported from 被动 Japan.
working The _________(work) people have played a great role in the activity. canned I don't like ______(can) food , I prefer something fresh .
1. 站在她妈妈旁边的那个女孩看上去很胆小。 who was standing standing The girl_____________________ by her mother looked very timid.
2. 最近到处在议论的话题都与2008年奥运会有关。 which are being discussed being discussed The topics _____________________ everywhere recently is concerned about the Olympics 2008 .
? ? ?
1. The topics being discussed everywhere recently is concerned about the Olympics 2008. 将来 to be discussed 2. The topics ________________(discuss) at tomorrow’s meeting is concerned 完成 about the Olympics 2008. discussed (discuss) at 3. The topics _______________ yesterday’s meeting was about the Olympics 2008.
用所给动词的正确形式填空： being questioned ? 1)The man__________ (question) in the police station now is a spy． respecting ? 2)A man_______ (respect) others will be respected． invited ? 3)Half of the guests _______(invite) to the conference were foreigners. being discussed ? 4)The matter _________(discuss) is very important．
boy injured by the car was sent to the hospital immediately.
The man delivering mails to my office every
day is a retired worker .
The glass is broken. ? The food smells inviting . 这道菜香味怡人。
convincing (convince). What he said sounds__________ interested ? He was ___________(interest) in what he learned in Canada and he thought everything interesting in Canada was ____________(interest) ．
Please fill in the blank with the verb given： 使…信服
? ? ? ? ? ? ?
类似情况还有：surprising ~surprised, exciting ~excited, tiring ~tired , disappointing ~disappointed, encouraging ~encouraged ， amazed ~amazing , bored ~boring , pleasing ~pleased, astonishing ~astonished. 人的感觉 -ed 分词
Sb. + Link.v + -ed分词
Sth. + Link.v + -ing分词
用所给动词的-ed 或~ing形式填空： tiring ? 1)The journey was quite______．(tire) ? 2)The result of the exam made me disappointed ．(disappoint) __________ exciting ? 3)This was really an _______moment ．(excite) puzzled ? 4)His ___________look suggested that he didn’t understand it．(puzzle) ? 5)He seemed quite delighted _______at the idea. (delight) ? 6)The present situation is encouraging．(encourage) _________
They caught him cheating in the mid-term examination 1.宾语补足语 ? He was caught cheating in the mid-term ? examination. 2.主语补足语 ? You can't leave the workshop with the machine running.
Fill in the blank: ? 1.He was surprised to find his room thoroughly
cleaned .(clean) _______
2.Last night I saw him playing _______(play) the violin
with his eyes _______(shut). shut
“被动” More exercises
巩固练习三 singing that song in English ? I heard my sister ________ outside. (sing) sung They once heard the song _________ in English. Mother heard her kid ___________ opening the door . ? Mother heard the door _____________. (open) opened finished finish), we began to ? With the test _________( analyze the result. left a lot of problems unsolved during our ? We __________________________ last meeting.我们留下了很多问题没解决. D ? Would you please speak louder so as to ________? A. make you hear B. make yourself hear C. make you heard D. make yourself heard
分词作状语，修饰谓语，大多说明动作发生 的背景或情景，表示时间、条件、原因、让 步、伴随情况等。一般说来，这一结构的逻 辑主语是主句的主语,而句子本身可与状语从 句等句型转换。
? ? ? ? ? ? ?
1.When we heard the news, we jumped with joy. = Hearing the news ,we jumped with joy. “主动” 2.When it is heated, the metal expands. = Heated, the metal expands. “被动”
3.Because he didn‘t know how to do it, he went to his father for help. = Not knowing how to do it, he went to his father for help. 4.As they were deeply moved, the children began to cry. = Deeply moved by the story, the children began to cry.
Looking ________(look) out of the window, you can have a full view of the beach. ? = If you look out of the window, you can have a full view of the beach. Kept ? 6._______ (keep) in refrigerator, these
vegetables will remain fresh. ? =If they are kept in refrigerator, these vegetables will remain fresh. 表示条件
7. The children rushed out, shouting and jumping. 表示方式和伴随情况 ? 8. She walked out of the house, followed ________by her little daughter. (follow) following ? 9. She walked out of the house, ________ her little daughter. (follow) Considered ? 10. ———— (consider) as a building material, wood is not very strong. ? = Although it is considered as a building material, wood is not very strong. ? e、表示让步
11.The car was held up by the snowstorm, causing (cause) the delay. thus ______ broken (break) ? 12.The glass fell to the ground, _____ to pieces. 表示结果
?分词作状语时，分词前可加连词表示强调。e.g. When heated, ice can be changed into water． While walking in the street, I saw a road accident． Though tired ,I went on with the work.
2.作表语 3.作补语 4.作状语
-ed +主句（不强调动作先后）; ? Having done + 主句（强调时间先后） ? Having been done ? e.g.
1.Used as a means of traffic in China, the bike is very useful. ? 2. Having been used for many years, the bike needs repairing.
1)The president promised to keep all the board informed (inform) of how the members_______ negotiations were going on． Having been ? 2)__________(be) there more than once, the old professor offered to show us around the newly-built library. Having been invited ? 3)_______________(invite)to go to camping, Paul ordered a new sleeping bag． Not knowing (not know) his telephone ? 4)____________ number, she lost touch with him.
主句的主语 分词的逻辑主语一般为___________, 但当分词 的动作执行者和句子的动作执行者不一致时，分 词前必须有自己的主语，e.g. ? If weather permits, we will have a field trip. ? Weather permitting, we‘ll have a field trip tomorrow ． 分词的独立结构 。 ? 这被称为_____________ ? 时间允许,我们将在去杭州的路上顺道看一下我 叔叔. ? Time permitting, we will visit my uncle on my way to Hangzhou.
*但有些分词作状语属习惯用法，分词的逻辑 主语和句子的主语可以不一致。 ? 如：Judging from the expression on his face, he had failed the driving test again． ? Generally speaking ,girls are more careful than boys . ? 类似的还有: ? Speaking of ? Talking of ?…
B sweet in the botanic garden 1.The flowers _____ attract the visitors to the beauty of nature.(2004) ? A. to smell B. smelling C. smelt D. to be smelt A in the studio, sounded ? 2.The disc, digitally _____ fantastic at the party that night.(2004) ? A. recorded B. recording C. to be recorded D. having recorded B according to the ? 3. Generally speaking, ____ directions, the drug has no side effect.(2003) ? A. when taking B. when taken C. when to take D. when to be taken
C 4.________ a reply, he decided to write again. A. Not receiving B. Receiving not C. Not having received D. Having not received
5.Before A _____, the machine must be checked. A.being used B. using it C. being used to D. using 6.____ D better attention , the vegetables could have grown better with the sun shining brightly in the sky and ____ them light. A. Giving; given B. Given; given C. Giving; giving D. Given; giving
C in thought,he almost ran into the car in 1.___ front of him. A. Losing B. Having lost C. Lost D. To lose
A. Lose oneself in thought
B. be lost in thought
5) Victor apologized his_______ not being (not be) able to inform me of the change in the plan. ? 6) After his journey from abroad, Richard Jones exhausted (exhaust). returned home,_________ ? 7) The discovery of new evidence led to the being caught (catch). thief__________ taken speaking (speak), When _____(take) ? 8) Generally______ according to the directions, the drug has no side effect. ? 9) She will tell us why she feels so strongly that to play each of us has a role_______ (play) in making to play the earth a better place______ (live).
lacking (lack) money, his parents 10 ) Though_______ managed______ to send (send) him to university. ? 11) -- How do you deal with the disagreement between the company and the customers? to solving (solve) the problem is ? -- The key________ to meet made _______(meet) the demand ________(make) by the customers. to settle ? 12) With a lot of difficult problems__________ (settle), the newly-elected president is having a hard time. Having suffered ? 13) _____ (suffer) such heavy pollution already, to clear it may now be too late___ (clear) up the river. know ? 14) Do let your mother____(know) all the truth. She appears__________ to have been told (tell) everything.
admit (admit) 16) Sandy could do nothing but______ to his teacher that he was wrong. ? 17) Mr. Reed made up his mind to devote setting(set) up ________(devote) all he had to_____ some schools for poor children. making (make) ? 18) One learns a language by______ mistakes and________ correcting (correct) them. ? 19) I've worked with children before, so I know to expect what__________ (expect) in my new job. not having been invited ? 20) Tony was very unhappy for_____________ (not invite) to the party.
Given (give) the general state of his health, 21)_____ it may take him a while__________ (recover) to recover from the operation. to choose ? 22) There are five pairs of shoes___________ (choose) from, but I'm at a loss which_______ to buy (buy). ? 23) Cleaning women in big cities usually get_________ (pay) by the hour. paid ? 24) What worried the child most was his__________ not being allowed (not allow) visit his mother in the hospital to have badly treated ? 25 ) He claimed__________________ (treat) in the supermarket when he was doing shopping yesterday.
To fetch (fetch) water before breakfast 26) _______ to be broken (break). seemed to me a rule never__________ shopping (shop), people sometimes ? 27) While_______ being persuaded can't help _____________(persuade) into buying something they don't really need. walking ? 28) She looks forward every spring to____ (walk) in the flower-lined garden. ? 29) Once your business becomes international, flying ____(fly) constantly will part of your life ? 30) The little time we have together we to spend try_________ (spend) wisely.
1)I meant to buy an evening paper, but I didn't see anyone selling ______(sell) them. ? 2)Just now I saw a man______ walking(walk) in the seated street, with a little girl _______(seat) on his shoulder． ? 3)The lady would love to have her luggage weighed _______(weigh). stealing ? 4)The thief was caught______ (steal) goods in the supermarket again ． ? 5)---What happened to Mr. White early this morning ? knocked(knock) down ? ---Oh，he was seen______ drove (drive) away． and the driver_______