实验中学:初中六大时态

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动词 have 的一般现在时 在一般现在时态的句子中,谓语动词 have 在句中有两种形式,即 have 和 has(第 三人称单数形式) 1、肯定句 have 用于主语为第一人称(I,We)第二人称:you.以及第三人称复数:they 和其 他复数名词的句中。 Has 用于主语为第三人称单数(he,she,it)和单数名词的句中。 I have a computer. She has a computer. 否定句 Have/has 的否定形式,一般要加助动词 do 或 does 再加 not 构成。 即主语+do/does not have+其他。 I do not have a blue pen. My friend doesn’t have a blue pen. 一般疑问句 Have/has 的一般疑问句是在句首加助动词 do 或 does 即 do/does+主语+have+其他。 Do you have a pencil? Yes,I do./No, I don’t. have 和 there be 的区别 Have 强调的是某人拥有,占有某物 There be 强调的是客观事实,某处存在某物。
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I have a book. There is a book on the desk. 用 there be/have 的适当形式填空。 We don’t _______any blue hat. Behind the door________a desk.
行为动词的一般现在时 一般现在时表示经常性,习惯性动作或现在存在的状态,历时不变的情况等。 其构成形式为:主语+动词原形/第三人称单数 1、表示现在的状态。 例:She works in a hospital. 2、表示经常或习惯性的动作。 He gets up at six. She visits her grandparents every weekend. 3、表示特征或能力。 He likes English a lot. She can swim. 4、表示客观事实或普遍真理。 She said that he earth goes around the sun. 5、在时间状语从句和 if 引导的条件状语从句中,常用一般现在时表将来。 We'll go to the park if it doesn't rain tomorrow. sleep at 10:00 on weekdays.
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疑问句: Do you like English? Yes,I do./No,I don’t. 第三人称单数变化规则: 1、一般动词在词尾加-s like likes; get gets 2、以字母 s,x,ch,sh 结尾的动词,加-es guess guesses ;teach teaches; wash washes 3、以辅音字母+o 结尾的动词一般加-es do does; go goes 4、以辅音字母加 y 结尾的动词,先改 y 为 i,再加-es fly flies;carry carries ;study studies Many city people_____their bikes to work every day. A ride B will ride C rode D have ridden

----Is your mother a teacher?

----Yes,she is.She ____at a junior high school.

A taught

B teaches

C will teach

D is teaching

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The teacher told us that the sun______ bigger than the earth. A. is B. was C. has been D. will be

He often______ his clothes on Sunday.

A. washing

B. washes C. has washed

D. wash

May______to school. A. never walks B. is never walking C. walk never D. never is walking

Maths, one of the most important subjects, ______always interested him. A. has B. have C. are D. is

I’m afraid you cant sit here .

Sorry , I______ know.

A. don’t B. Won’t

C. Can’t

D. didn’t

What’s her name? I______. A. forget B. forgot C. had forgotten

D. am forgetting

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现在进行时 一、现在进行时表示现在或当前一段时间正在进行的动作。常与 now,these days 等时间状语连用。其构成形式:主语+am/is/are+动词的现在分词。 We are studying English these days. 二、表示现在(指说话人说话时)正在发生的动作或存在的状态。 They are talking with friends. Ssh,be quiet!The baby is sleeping in the next room. 三、现在进行时表将来。已经确定或安排好的将来的活动,常用的词主要是: come、go、leave、arrive 等短暂性动词。 I’m leaving for a meeting in Japan next week. 四、表示渐变的动作,这类动词有:get,grow,become,turn 等 It's getting hotter and hotter. 五、以 look,listen 开头的句子提示我们动作正在进行。 Look!She is wearing a pair of glasses. 现在分词的变化规则 1 一般情况下,直接在动词后加 ing work ---- working sleep ----- sleeping study ----- studying 2 动词以不发音的 e 结尾,要去 e 再加 ing take ----- taking make ----- making dance ----- dancing 3 重读闭音节的动词,要双写词尾字母,再加 ing cut ----- cutting put ----- putting begin ------ beginning 4 以 ie 结尾的动词,把 ie 变成 y 再加 ing
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lie ----- lying tie ----- tying die ----- dying

5.以 oe,ee,ye 结尾的动词,直接加 ing

see----seeing

eye----eyeing

结构:主+be+现在分词

疑问句:

Be+主+v-ing+其他

Are the children flying kites in the park?

Yes,they are.

No, they are not.

特殊疑问句:

特殊疑问词+一般疑问句

What are you doing for the Spring Festival at this moment?

I’m making dumplings.

不用于进行时的动词

感官动词:smell,sound,feel,taste,look..

表拥有:own,have,……

表示态度感情的动词:like,love,hate… 表心理状态:feel,want,prefer……

一般现在时和现在进行时的区别。 一般现在时表示经常性,习惯性得得动作,且动作具有长久性。
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现在进行时表示现在或现阶段正在进行的动作,动作具有短暂性。

一般现在时

现在进行时

表示经常性或习惯性的动作及

基本用法

状态,主语具有的基本性格和能 表示现阶段正在做的事情或

力,也用于自然现象或客观真 正在发生的动作。

理。

1)主+be+其他

构成

2)主+动词原形或者动词第三 主+be+v-ing+其他

人称单数+其他

3)主+情+V+其他

1)频 度 副 词 : 1)时 间 状 语 : now,these

标志词或时间状 often,sometimes,always 等

days,at this/the moment 等



2)时间状语:every day/morning 2)句首有 look/listen 等



感情色彩

往往不带感情色彩,只用来说明 有时与 always 连用,表达批

事实,语气较为肯定。

评,讨厌,赞扬等感情色彩。

You are always _____your mind.

A.changing

B. change

C.changes

Don’t talk so loudly . Your father______.

A. sleeps B. is sleeping

C. slept

D. had slept

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How many people does the doctor know who______ of the disease?

A. are dying

B. is dying C. has died

D. dies

Look.Sam _____ TV happily on the sofa. A.is watching B.watches C.watching D,was watching

They are not _____ basketball now. A.playing B.played C.play D.plays

Listen ! Someone______ in the next room . A. cried B. crying C. is crying D. has cried

一般将来时 一般将来时表示将来某个时间要发生的动作,事情或存在的状态。
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标志词:tomorrow,in+一段时间,next year/week 等。 肯定句:主+be going to +V+ 其他 The play is going to be produced next month. 主+will+V+其他 We will visit the Summer Palace. 否定句:主+be not going to +V+ 其他 The play is not going to be produced next month. 主+will not(won't)+V+其他 The boys won’t play football tomorrow. 一般疑问句:Be+主+going to +V+其他 Are you going to go fishing next Sunday? Yes,I am going to . No,I am not going to. Will+主+V+其他 Will the students watch the match? Yes,they will. No,they won’t. 特殊疑问句: 特殊疑问词+be+主+going to+V +其他 Why are you going to go shopping. 特殊疑问词+will+主+V+其他 What will the weather be like tomorrow?
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Be going to 用于 there be 句型 当 there be 句型用 be going to 形式表将来,意为将来有......时。 结构为:there be going to be There is going to be a film this evening. 1)will/shall+动词原形 shall 用于第一人称,常被 will 所代替。
will 在陈述句中用于各人称,在征求意见时常用于第二人称。 will not=won't Which paragraph shall I read first? Will you be at home at seven this evening? 2) be going to do+V 表示将来。 a. 主语的意图,即将做某事。 What are you going to do tomorrow? b. 计划,安排要发生的事。 The play is going to be produced next month。 c. 有迹象要发生的事。 Look at the dark clouds, there is going to be a storm. 现在进行时表将来时 下列动词的现在进行时表示将来时 go.come.fly.leave.start.begin.finish.end.arrive and so on. She is leaving for Wuhan tomorrow. 一般现在时表将来 1)下列动词 come, go, arrive, leave, start, begin, return 的一般现在时可以表示
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将来,主要用来表示在时间上已确定或安排好的事情。 The train leaves at six tomorrow morning. 火车明天上午六点开。 When does the bus star? It stars in ten minutes. 汽车什么时候开?十分钟后。 Be going to 和 will 的区别 be going to 主要用于: 1、表示事先经过考虑、安排好打算、计划要做的事情。 What are you going to do today? Dad and I are going to watch an opera this afternoon. 2、表示根据目前某种迹象判断,某事非常有可能发生。 I am afraid I am going to have a cold. 恐怕我要患重感冒。 will 主要用于在以下几个方面: 1、表示单纯的未来“将要”通用各个人称。 They will go to visit the factory tomorrow. I’ll come with Wang Bing, Liu Tao and Yang Ling. 2、表示不以人的意志为转移的自然发展的未来的事。 Today is Saturday. Tomorrow will be Sunday. 。 He will be thirty years old this time next year. 3、问对方是否愿意做某事或表示客气地邀请或命令。 Will you please turn on the radio? Will you go to the zoo with me?
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We _______ in Beijing in two days.

A. will arrives

B. arrives

C. are going to arrive

D. Arriving

The students ________ dumplings tomorrow.

A. is going to making B. are making

C. will make

D. are make

Are you going to_________ thirteen years old next year?

A. will be

B. are

C. be

D. Go

Mary______ English next year. A. will learn B. will to learn C. are going to learn. D. learns

How ______ Jenny ___ home tomorrow?

A. does......go B. is……going

C. will……go D. do……go

Who is going to _________ a song ?

A. sings B singing C. to sing D. sing

一般过去时 一般过去时表示在过去某个时间里发生的动作或存在的状态;过去习惯性、 经常性的动作、行为;过去主语所具备的能力和性格。yesterday,last night,in+
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过去的年份,two days ago,before,the age of,the day before yesterday,ago,just now,等。 基本结构: 肯定形式 ①主语+谓语(动词过去式)+句子其他成分; They visited the teacher last week. ②主语+was/were+其他; Peter was an active boy when he was young. 否定形式 ①主+was/were not+其他; They were not students any more. Was he long when he was in primary school? Yes,he was. No,he wasn’t. ②在行为动词前加 didn't,同时还原行为动词; They didn't watch TV last night. 一般疑问句: ①Did+主语+do+其他。 Did they visit the teacher last week? Yes,they did. No,they didn’t. ②Was/were+主+其他。
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Was he long when he was in primary school? Yes,he was. No,he wasn’t. 特殊疑问句: 特殊疑问词+did+主语+动词原形+其它 What time did you finish your homework?
规则动词的过去式: ① 一般情况下在动词原形后直接加-ed。
wanted,played ② 以不发音的字母 e 结尾的动词,直接加-d。
hoped,lived ③ 重读闭音节单词如果末尾只有一个辅音字母需双写最后一个辅音字母再加 -ed
planned stopped ④ 以辅音字母+y 结尾的动词变 y 为 i,再加-ed。
studied,worried

部分不规则动词的变化形式。

1. go -went

2.take-took

3. have-had

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4.buy-bought

5. eat-ate

6.see-saw

7. hang-hung(悬挂)

8.meet-met 9. win-won(赢得)

10.sleep-slept

11. put-put 12.come-came

13. wake-woke(醒)

14.read-read 15let-let

be 动词过去式的句式:was/were

She often ___her homework in the evening.But on the evening of December 24th

she _____TV.

A.does,watches

B.is doing,watched

C.does,watched

D.is doing,watches

They ____her to the party,so she was very happy. A invite B invited C will invite D are inviting

—When ___ Lucy ____to New York? —Yesterday . A does,get B did,get
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C has,got D had,got

How long ago______ playing football? A. have you stopped B. had you stopped C. did you stop D. do you stop

Last week John______ his leg. A. felt and broken B. fell and broke C. feels and breaks D. fallen and broken

Jack______his thick coat because it was snowing.

A. puts on

B. put on C. takes on D. took on

He______the picture on the wall yesterday.

A. hanged

B. hung C. has hanged

D. was hanged

构成:was/were+现在分词 肯定句式:

过去进行时

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主+was/were+现在分词+其他 We were having supper when the phone rang 否定句式: 主+was/were not+现在分词+其他 We were not watching TV at that time. 疑问句式: Was /were +主+现在分词+ 其他 were we/you watching TV at that time? Yes,we were . No,we weren't. 时间状语标志词:then,at that time,at this time yesterday,at+钟点数+yesterday 等。 What were you doing at this time yesterday? 过去进行时表示过去在某一时间段或某一段时间内正在发生或进行的动作或状 态。 We were playing football at 5 o’clock yesterday afternoon. 表示一个动作发生时,另一个动作正在进行。注意:when 后接一般过去时,while 后接过去进行时。 We were having fun on the playground when the bell rang. I was doing my homework while he was listening to music. 过去进行时还可以与 when,while,as 引导的时间状语连用。 when 引导的时间状语从句的谓语动词既可以是延续性的,也可以是非延续性的,
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而 while 引导的时间状语从句的谓语动词只能是延续性动词。 When you came in, I was talking with my sister. While we were waiting for the bus,it was raining heavily. While 和 as 常表示从句的动作与主句的动作同时发生。 They rushed in while/as we were discussing problems. while 表示两个延续性动作同时发生而又具有对比意义,主从句的时代通常是相 同的。 While she was making a phone call,I was writing a letter. as 还用于表示在某事发生的过程中另外一件事发生,或表示随着短暂性动作的 发生,另一动作立刻发生。 I was listening to the radio as he came in. 1、It seemed that the old man______ for something over there. A. looks B. looked C. was looking D. has looked 2、As she______the newspaper , Granny______asleep. A. read , was falling B. was reading fell C. was reading , was falling D. read , fell 3、It______ hard when I left my house . A. is raining B. rains C. was raining D. will rain
现在完成时 现在完成时:表示过去发生或已经完成的某一动作对现在造成的影响或结 果。(汉语中常用“已经”、“过”、“了”等表达)通常与表示包括现在在内的时间副词
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just, already, yet, ever 等状语连用。 现在完成时表示过去已经开始,持续到现在,也许还会持续下去的动作或状
态。可以和表示延续的时间状语连用。 如 for、since 等引导的时间状语。(注 意:句中谓语动词要用延续性动词)一段时间的表达方法有两种:
for: + 一段时间 for a year, for two weeks, for three years Since+过去的某一时刻:since nine hours ago, since last week, since 1990 肯定句: 主语(第一、二人称,第三人称复数)+have +过去分词+其他 主语(第三人称单数)+has+过去分词+其他 I have been to Beijing. have been (to)和 have gone (to)的区别: have / has been (to) 表示“曾经到过某地......”,说话时此人不在那 里,已经回来。侧重指经历。 have / has gone (to) 表示某人“已经去某地了......”,说话时此人可 能在路上或已到那里,反正不在这里。 试比较: He has been to Beijing. 他曾去过北京。 (人已回来,可能在说话人的地方) He has gone to Beijing. 他已经去北京了。(人去了,不在说话人的地方) 否定句: 主语+ have/has +not +过去分词+其他 He hasn’t finished his homework yet. 一般疑问句:
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Have/Has +主语+过去分词+其他? Has the letter arrived yet? 特殊疑问句: 特殊疑问词+have/has +主语+过去分词+其他? Where have you been to ? 一般过去时与现在完成时之比较: 1)一般过去时:表示过去某个时间发生的事、存在的状态或经常发生的动 作,与现在无关;现在完成时表示与现在有关系的发生在过去的动作,它不与表 示过去的时间状语(如 yesterday , last week , a moment ago,just now)连 用.
be 结构:肯定式:主语+was \were+ 其他 否定式:主语+was \were+not + 其他 一般疑问句:Was \Were+主语+ 其他
V 结构:肯定式:主语+v.过去式+其他 否定式:主语+didn’t +v.原形+其他 一般疑问句:Did+主语+v.原形+其他
2)一般过去时常与具体的时间状语连用,而现在完成时通常与模糊的时间 状语连用,或无时间状语。 ◎ 一般过去时的时间状语有:yesterday, last week,…ago, in1980, , just now, this morning 等具体的时间状语。 ◎ 现在完成时的时间状语有:for, since, ever, never, just, already, yet, in past years 等不确定的时间状语。
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I saw this film yesterday.(只说明动作发生在过去。)

I have seen this film.(强调对现在的影响,电影的内容已经知道了。)

She has returned from Paris.(她已从巴黎回来了。)

She returned yesterday.(她是昨天回来的。)

He has been in the League for three years. (在团内的状态可延续)

He joined the League three years ago. ( 三年前入团,joined 为短暂行为。)

注意:句子中如有一般过去时的时间副词(如 yesterday, last week, in 1960)时,

不能使用

现在完成时,要用一般过去时。

Tom has written a letter to his parents last night. (Ⅹ)

Tom wrote a letter to his parents last night.

(√)

1、It______five years since he has left for Beijing.

A. was B. has been

C.is

D.is going to be

2、We can’t find him anywhere . Perhaps he______ home.

A. is going B. went C. has come D. would come

3、We______to the Great Wall several times.

A. go B. were going C. have gone D.have been

4、I______my homework just.

A. finish

B. finished

C. have finished

D. had finished

5、His grandfather______ for thirty years.

A. died B. was dead C. has been dead

D. has died

6、I______ from my brother for a long time.

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A. not have heard B. have not heard C. have heard not D. do not hear

7、Did your brother go to America last year? ______.

A. No , he did never go there

B. No , he has never gone here

C. No , he never was there

D. No , he has never been there

8、He______ that factory since 1958.

A. has left

B. has worked in C. has gone from D. has come to

9、Our teacher______ to Beijing three times.

A. went B. had gone C. has gone D. has been

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