选修6 知识点language points unit3 a healthy life_图文

Useful words & expressions

Key words and phrases:
1.abuse 2.stress; pressure; tension 3.ban; forbid; prohibit 4.tough 5.bad-tempered 6.automatically 7.quit 8.smell 9.strengthen / weaken 10.ashamed / shameful

Expressions
1. 健康问题 health issues 2. 与…有关 concern sb 3. 滥用药品 abuse drugs 4. 青少年 adolescent 5. 禁止吸烟 ban smoking 6. 令人惊奇的是… It seems amazing that 7. 归功于 due to 8.这是我写信的真正原因。 This brings me to the real reason for my letter. 9. 发现戒烟很难 find it difficult to give up smoking 10. 青春期 adolescence 11. 对…上瘾 be addicted to sth

12. 对…习惯 become accustomed to 13. 戒毒(脱瘾)症状 withdrawal symptom 14. 自动地 automatically 15. 戒掉,退出 quit 16. 害处 harmful effects 17. 对…极其有害 do terrible damage to

18. 怀孕 become pregnant 19. 在某种程度上不正常 be abnormal in some way 20. 很难闻 smell terrible 21. 变黄 turn yellow 22. 气喘吁吁 breathless=out of breath 23. 匆匆离开, 替换掉 take off 24. 增强决心 strengthen

1.abuse v.& n.

? Drug/alcohol abuse 滥用毒品/ 酗酒 ? abuse one's privilege 滥用特权 ? I'll not abuse your hospitality, your kindness.
我不会辜负你的热情招待和好意。 薄熙来被指控滥用职权和贪污腐化(corruption)。 Bo was accused of abusing power and corruption. 报道此案的新闻记者遭到了恐吓和谩骂。 The journalist covering the case was threatened and abused.

? 2.stress

n. 压力;强调;紧张;重要性;重读

vt. 强调;使紧张;加压力于;用重音读

1) under the stress/ pressure (of…) Unemployment and his wife's health put him under a great stress. 2) lay [place, put] stress on
这学期,英语老师把重点放在作文和阅读上.

? This term, the English teacher lays stress on composition and reading. stressed 3) feel ________ (adj)
a ________ job/situation/lifestyle stressful

stress和pressure意思相近,有时可互换,但一般情况下 使用哪个词都已经约定俗成。 stress指使人感到内心痛苦的各种原因, pressure 则指强制或促使某种行动的外部压力。 stress通常为不好的东西.而适当的pressure有时却是好事。 tension关系不好或其他原因而出现的紧张状态,冲突; 或某物被过度伸展后呈现的状态; The tension in sth such as a rope or wire is the extent to which it is stretched tight. (拉紧程度 ) tension Eg. The ________ between China and Japan is likely to remain.

1)More and more people cannot bear the ________ stress of modern life. intension 2) Don’t pull it any more. The great ________ will break the rope. pressure 3) The patient is complaining of his feeling of _______ on his chest. pressure/stress 4) Nobody can work well under ___________. 5)Modern people often suffer from various ______-caused illnesses stress Sometimes, though, the stresses in your life can actually come from your peers. They may pressure you into doing something you're uncomfortable with, such as shoplifting, doing drugs or drinking, taking dangerous risks when driving a car, or having sex before you feel ready. It’s what we call peer pressure.

3.ban (-nn-) v.& n. ? He was said to have been banned from the meeting. ? Tim was banned from driving for six months due to over-speeding. ban sth/sb from sth/doing sth ? There is to be a total ban on smoking in the office. ? to impose/lift a ban 颁布/解除禁令
这部电视剧将被各大电视台禁播。(ban) 她的父亲不允许这门婚事。 (forbid)

1.To ban sth. means to state officially that it must not be done, shown, or used. (官方) 明令禁止 ban ...from sth./doing sth. (formal prohibition),指合法地或由于社会压力而禁止, 含谴责或不赞成的态度
2.If you forbid sb to do sth, or if you forbid an activity, you order that it mustn’t be done. 禁止 ? If sth forbids a particular course of action or state of affairs, it makes it impossible for it to happen. 使…不可能 比prohibit通俗,用于较小事物,或个人、上级、官方、 长辈做出的禁止命令、规定,或客观条件不允许.

3.If a law or sb in authority prohibits sth, they forbid it or make it illegal. 禁止

ban / forbid / prohibit
prohibits 1)The law _______ the tobacco from being sold freely. 2)The general lifted the _____ on political parties. ban 3)His own pride _______him to ask Arthur's help. forbids 4)After the accident, he was _______ from driving banned alone. forbad 5) Our school ________ us to bring cell phones to school.

4. due (to)
1)His flight is due at 10 o’clock pm tonight. 应抵达的 2)The results are due at the end of the month. 预期的 3)They are assigned to deal with accidents due to driving at high speed. 由于,因为 4)Her absence was due to the storm. 5)After due consideration it was decided to send him away to live with foster parents. 适当的;充分的 6)I was sent a cheque and advised that no further pension was due. 应得的 7)To give Linda her due, she had tried to encourage John in his school work. 应得之物

知识拓展: 表示”因果”关系的短语

? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

because of 较口语化 owing to 较正式 thanks to “因为”;“多亏了” as a result (of ) accordingly 因此; 相应地 on account of because 连词 as/since, for 连词; 表示理由是已知的, therefore 副词; “因此” so 并列连词 “因此”

5.tough a.艰苦的;坚强的;坚韧的;牢固的;强壮


? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

a tough story 难以置信的故事 棘手的工作 a tough job 难伺候的客人 a tough customer 顽固的罪犯 a tough criminal 日子不好过 have a tough time of it 嚼不动的肉 tough meat a tough winter 一个严冬 a tough negotiator. 态度坚决的谈判者

as tough as old boots 坚韧的 tough as nails 硬如铁钉

6. be / become addicted to +n(迷恋,上瘾) At that time many a stevedore used to be addicted to alcohol like his father.

? addict oneself to sth 沉溺于, 醉心于 ? He addicted himself to playing the violin and didn’t find a thief slide into his house.
? addict n.上了瘾的人

film addict 电影迷

addition n. 沉迷,上瘾 addictive a. 使人上瘾的

The parents felt helpless when they found their son had ____ love stories for long. A. addicted B. addicted to C. addicted himself D. been addicted to
____ to drugs, the young man tried every means to get money and ended up in prison. A. Being addicted B. Addicted C. Addicting himself D. Been addicted

alcoholic 酒鬼 couch-potatoes 电视迷 a drug addict 瘾君子 a heavy smoker 抽烟上瘾者 bookworm 书呆子

7. becomes accustomed to
My eyes soon grew accustomed to the darkness. They had to accustom themselves to the hot weather. 习惯了登险峻的山,他毫不费力地登上了山顶. Accustomed to ? _________________climbing the steep mountain, he had no difficulty reaching the top. ?look forward to / get down to / devote to ? pay attention to / lead to / get back to/ ?on one’s way to / come/get close to ?the approach to / stick to

8.bad-tempered a. ? When the drug leaves your body , you feel sick , bad-tempered and or even in pain. ? He's in a bad temper today. 他今天在闹情绪。 control [keep] one's temper 捺住性子, 忍着气 ? lose one's temper 类似复合形容词: bad-/good-tempered warm-hearted / middle –aged black-tailed / grey –haired absent –minded…

9.automatically adv. automatic a. ? an automatic washing machine ? an automatic reply to a familiar question ? ATM (Automatic Teller Machine ) 自动提款机 Auto- [前缀]表示“自己,独自”之义 Automobile<美>= motor car auto-alarm, auto-analysis

10. quit v. (quit/quitted) quit doing sth : stop doing sth sth 戒掉某物 some place 离开某地

I wish you’d quit complaining. His father quit because of ill health. He had to quit school at a young age because he couldn’t afford the education.

只能用动词的 -ing形式做宾语的动词 admit; advise; allow; permit; forbid; appreciate;

avoid; complete; consider; deny; quit;
fancy想象; finish; keep; mention;

mind; miss; pardon; prevent; delay;
enjoy; escape; excuse; imagine; postpone推迟; practise; recall记起; recommend 推荐;

resist抵抗, risk冒险; suggest; tolerate / stand忍受;

11.smell

n.气味, 臭味, 嗅觉 v.嗅, 闻到, 散发(...的)气味, 有...气味

The dog will smell out a thief. I could smell something burning when I got home. He could smell/sense danger. 常与can,could 连用 smell nice [bad] Roses smell sweet.
The dog didn’t seem to smell _____, for it didn’t even smell the meat, which appeared so _____. A. well, tastily B. good, tasty C. well, tasty D. good, tastily

c

11.strengthen v. ? It’s my duty to strengthen the fence.
make sth. strong or stronger

? The wind strengthened during the night.
gain strength

-en动词后缀: weak——weaken, wide-widen sharp——sharpen , loose-loosen tough——toughen deepen cheapen flatten

1) The boy was _________ to tell his mother that ashamed he had failed. 2) I was _________ of my __________ behavior at ashamed shameful that time. 3)To our surprise, the cheat wasn’t ____ of his D ___ conduct at all. A. shameful; shameful B. shamed; ashamed C. shameful; ashamed D. ashamed; shameful
12. feel ashamed 修饰人,多作表语 shameful behavior/treatment… 修饰物或行为,多作定语

13. take off
? ? ? ?

?

减(价),打折 take one's coat off; take 20 percent off a new movie that really took off. 成功,卖座 I forgot to take off my make-up last night. As the plane was taking off, I remembered that I hadn’t turned off my phone. I am taking Monday off to do some shopping. 休假

成功 ? Tom Hanks’ career as an actor took off after he starred in a movie in his thirties. ? He took off at once and headed back to the motel. (常指突然且出人意料地) 离开 ? He was taken off the school team because he was unfit, 被替换掉

14. Decide on a day to quit. ? decide on doing = decide to do 最终他决定到海边度假. ? In the end, he decided to spend the holidays by the sea. (.. decided on spending…) ? Let’s put our heads together and ___ a plan of action. A. decide to B. decide in C. decide on D . decide at

? ?

?

?
?

Key sentences: It seems amazing that at my age I am still fit enough to cycle 20 kilometers in an afternoon. Your mother tells me that you started smoking some time ago and now you are finding it difficult to give it up. Neither did I know that my cigarette smoke could affect the health of the non-smokers. Arrange to stop smoking with a friend so you can talk about your problems or join a stop-smoking group. I want you to live as long and healthy a life as I have.

Your mother tells me (that) ... .and that you are finding it difficult to give up.

find/ think / consider / make / feel it adj to do 我认为到英国去旅行没必要带汉英字典. I don’t think it necessary to bring a ChineseEnglish dictionary when traveling to Britain.
?

手势使得听众更容易理解他的演讲. Gesture makes it easy for audience to understand his speech.

? Every time you feel like smoking a cigarette, remind yourself that you are a non-smoker. ? every time/ each time/ the first time next time / the last time 我第一次见到婆婆的时候,她正在地里摘棉花. The first time I saw my mother-in law, she was picking cotton in the field. 每次我遇到麻烦的时候, 他总是帮我解决. Every time I was in trouble, he would help me out.

Find a word or phrase from the text that means the same as the underlined words in each sentence.

1. You will be able to stop smoking eventually if you are quit determined enough. tough 2. Having lived in Hawaii all his life, he was not used to
the cold of Northern Europe. accustomed to

3. She felt embarrassed about her body shape, so she decided to go on a diet. ashamed (of her) breathless 4. Running a marathon will leave you out of breath.
5. You really have no idea just how hopeless cancer can desperate make you feel.

6. The effects of drinking too much alcohol on your health can be serious. alcoholic 7. Doing exercises every day can not only make your muscles stronger but also help you relax. strengthen 8. If you are expecting a baby, your smoking habit might cause problems for it. pregnant 9. In spite of all his efforts he failed. He was so upset about himself that he felt like crying. disappointed 10. He felt he had to make up his mind on every step instead of taking risks. decide on

用所给词的正确形式填空
1)After a _______ week of work, all the employees stressful were extremely ________ and tired. They stressed complained that few could work efficiently under ______.(stress) stress addictive 2) Playing computer games is highly _______. Once you get addicted it, you will find it hard to get rid of _______to addiction it. Now, Henry, is fighting his _______ to the games. (addict) judge judgment 3) As a _______, he has good _________ and never _______ a person by his appearance. (judge) judges

5) The son was ashamed to hurt his old mother in such _______ a _________way and came to beg her pardon. shameful (shame) 6) Some songs by Zhoujielun can not be comprehended _________ by us. To some old people, they are completely comprehension beyond____________ . So, their grandchildren comprehensive have to explain the songs in a more ________ way to their grand grandparents. (comprehend) 7) When I saw a car rushing towards me at a high automatically speed, I jumped aside __________. It was my automatic action that saved my life. (automatic) _______

due to cigarettes tough unfit alcohol mental quit withdrawal adolescents addicted to stress effects

Smoking ___________ drinking _______ or taking cigarettes alcohol other drugs produce many harmful ________ and effects have no real benefits. So why do ____________ do adolescents it? Perhaps some think it makes them look _____ tough or cool. Others may think it will help them deal due to with_______ in their lives possibly ______ stress pressure from parents or teachers. Some may just want to experiment. What they don’t realize is

due to cigarettes tough unfit quit withdrawal; adolescents addicted to; stress; effects

alcohol

mental

how easy it is to become addicted to smoking. In __________ fact it is the ______ addiction rather than the mental physical effects which make it really hard to _____smoking. When an adolescent realizes how quit _____ he or she is becoming, it is too late. Sadly unfit the __________ symptoms can be quite severe for withdrawal some people. Of course the best way to deal with these drugs is not to get into the habit in the first place!

1. An apple a day keeps the doctor away.

How to live and early tobe healthy? long and rise, makes a 2. Early to bed
man healthy, wealthy and wise. 3. A light heart lives long. 4. Good health is over wealth. 5. Health is happiness.

Homework 根据下列提升,写一篇抽烟有害健康的作文 1.据说,中国有一半人在吸烟,包括很多中学生。 一些人认为抽烟是一种时髦,一些人认为抽 烟很有趣,还有一些人认为吸烟可以提神。 2. 吸烟能导致很多疾病。肺癌是其中最严重的 疾病。同时,吸烟很浪费金钱,还可能引起 火灾。 3.呼吁人们改掉吸烟的坏习惯。 (about 120 words)

It is said that there are about half of people in China smoking. Many young boys and girls have the habit of smoking, though they are still middle school students. As we all know, smoking does great harm to human beings. More and more people have come to realize how serious this problem is. But they are never bored with it. Some people think it is a kind of fashion; some think it is of great fun while others think that smoking can refresh themselves. Smoking causes many illnesses. A lot of people always cough because of smoking. The most serious illness caused by smoking is lung cancer. Meanwhile smoking is a waste of money. Besides, careless smokers may cause dangerous fires. In order to keep healthy, we should get rid of the bad habit of smoking. Please stop smoking at once.


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