week_11_第四章8_省略法_图文

第四章
第八节 省略法

Foreword
省略法 省略是指原文中有些词在译文中不译出来, 因为译文中虽无其词而已有其意,或者在译 文中是不言而喻的。换言之,省略是删去一 些可有可无的,或者有了反嫌累赘或违背译 文语言习惯的词。但省略并不是把原文的某 些思想内容删去。

Appreciation
翻译技巧中真正意义上的减词,并不是简单的省略。 有时牺牲原句中一些次要的部分,使所译文字简洁精 炼,文风流畅自然,从而更加突出远距的主要成分。 因此,在翻译的过程中,我们既要善于保全,也要善 于牺牲。一般地说,英译汉并不随便删减,但汉语有 其简洁的特点,如果过分强调表达一切,把每一个词 都译出来,反而因为保全了一些次要部分而破坏了整 体,因小而失大。有时候,只有敢于牺牲一些不影响 原意的词句,才能更好地突出重点。下面我们来看几 个例句。

Appreciation
… because he used to lend money to people in distress, and would never take any interest for the money he lent.

译文一:……因为安东尼奥常常借钱给那些有急 难的人, 从来不要利息。 译文二:……因为安东尼奥常常借钱给那些有急 难的人,而且从来不要他借出的钱的利息。

Appreciation
William Sidney Porter, who is known under his pen name, O. Henry, is one of the best known writer of America. 译文一:威廉· 悉尼·波特以笔名欧· 亨利闻名于 世,是美国最知名的作家之一。

译文二:威廉· 悉尼·波特,笔名欧·亨利,是 美国最知名的作家之一。

Appreciation
“Remember: you are not any old Tom, Dick or Harry giving his opinion. You’re a man who was sent as a representative of the British Government.”

译文一:你要记住,你不是一个普普通通的老 百姓,可以随便发表意见。你是作为英国政府 派出的一个代表的人。
译文二:你要记住,你不是一个普普通通的老 百姓,可以随便发表意见。你是英国政府派出 的代表。

Warm-up Activity
“有” 还是没“有”?这是个问题! There be 句型在英语中用的比较广泛。在英语 中,表示什么地点或存在什么事物时,常用 “there be + 名词 + 地点(时间)状语”的结 构。这种结构中的引导词“there be”本身没有 意义,相当于汉语的“有”。但在实际的翻译 过程中,究竟是翻译出“有”好,还是没“有 ”好呢?

Warm-up Activity
1)译成有主语的“有”。
There are different elements in nature. 自然界有各种不同的元素。 There are three ways of heat transfer: conduction, radiation and convection.

传热的方法有三种:传导、辐射和对流。
There are about seventy metallic elements. 金属元素有七十种左右。

Warm-up Activity
2)译成无主语(句)的“有”。
There is a lamp on the table. 桌上有一盏灯。 There are many thousands of stars in the sky that are like the sun.

天空中有成千上万像太阳一样的星星。
Were there any desks and chairs in the room? 屋子里有桌子和椅子吗?

Warm-up Activity
2)译成无主语(句)的“有”。
Where there is a will, there is a way. 有志者,事竟成。 Is there anyone coming to dinner? 有人来吃饭吗?

There was expected to be more discussion.
希望有更多的讨论。 There are not any perfect conductors. 没有绝对的导体。

Warm-up Activity
3)译成“四字句”或并列句。 There is no down. 平安无事。 There is not a moment to be lost. 分秒必争。 There is no telling what will happen. 未来的事无可奉告。 There are friends and friends. 朋友有好的,也有坏的。

Warm-up Activity
4)译成没“有”的其他动词。 There was an English evening party in the hall last night. 昨晚大厅里举行了英语晚会。 There is a typewriter on the table. 桌上放着一台打字机。 There may have been an accident ahead. 前面可能发生了事故。 There is sure to be some rain tonight. 今晚肯定要下雨了。

Warm-up Activity
5)省略“有” 。 There was a girl water-skiing on the lake. 一个女孩子在湖上滑冰。 There were no footsteps to be seen. 看不见足迹。 There are 20 guests going to the movie. 二十位客人去看了电影。 There runs a river at a distance. 一条河从远处流过。

Warm-up Activity

该不该割掉这条尾巴? ---关于 when 的翻译

Warm-up Activity
英译汉时,我们通常会用“当……的时候”来 翻译以when引导的状语从句。但在汉语中这个 结构用得并不普遍,尤其是在口语中。如: He came in when I was having dinner. 译文一:当我吃饭的时候,他进来了。 译文二:他进来那会儿我正在吃饭。 译文三:我正吃饭,他进来了。

Warm-up Activity
把when译成“当……的时候”,不仅不符合汉 语的习惯,还给人一种“拖着一条尾巴”的感 觉。因此,我们在翻译的过程中要想办法割掉 这个尾巴,即把when省去不译。比如: When he saw me, he was startled. 译文一:当他看见我的时候,他吓了一大跳。 译文二:他看见我,吓了一大跳。

Warm-up Activity
More examples:

I’ll call you when I get there.

我到那里就给你打电话。
How can they learn anything when they spend all their spare time watching TV?

他们空闲时间都在看电视, 还能学什么东西呢?
When the meal was finished, Rachel went out.

吃完饭,瑞秋就出门了。

Ⅰ. Omission in English-Chinese Translation 省略法在英汉翻译中的运用
English from its very nature is generally not so brief as Chinese. The Chinese version ought to be shorter than the English version, otherwise there must be something wrong with the translation, or something implied in the original text which needs to be amplified in the Chinese versions. A necessary and indispensable word in English may be useless, superfluous, and even a stumbling block in Chinese. So many important words in English may well be omitted in Chinese, while other words omitted or understood in English may be supplied or repeated. Brevity is the soul of wit.

Ⅰ. Omission in English-Chinese Translation 省略法在英汉翻译中的运用
1、Omitting the Pronoun 省略代词 He put his hands into his pockets and then shrugged his shoulders. 他将双手放进衣袋,然后耸了耸肩。 They went to dinner. It was excellent, and the wine was good. Its influence presently had its effect on them. They talked not only without acrimony,but even with friendliness. 他们进人餐室用餐。 美酒佳看,顿受感染 ,言谈 间不但没有恶言恶语,甚至还充满友好之情。

Ⅰ. Omission in English-Chinese Translation 省略法在英汉翻译中的运用
You will be staying in this hotel during your visit in Beijing. 你在北京访问期间就住在这家饭店里。 I hope you will enjoy your stay here. 希望您在这儿过得愉快。 We are pleased to have received your invitation to the symposium on internet. 非常高兴收到你寄来的参加互联网会议的邀请 。

Ⅰ. Omission in English-Chinese Translation 省略法在英汉翻译中的运用
2、Omitting the Article 省略冠词
The frequent use of the definite article (the) and indefinite article (a/an) is characteristic of English, therefore they are usually not translated into Chinese. However, there are exceptions. In many cases they must be translated one way or another.

The moon was slowly rising above the sea. 月亮慢慢从海上升起。 Any substance is made up of atoms whether it is a solid,a liquid, or a gas. 任何物质,不论是固体、液体或气体都是由原 子组成的。

Ⅰ. Omission in English-Chinese Translation 省略法在英汉翻译中的运用
注意:1)当不定冠词表示数量时,不能省略。 He left without saying a word. 他一句话都没说就走了。
2)当不定冠词a或an指“每一”时不能省略。 Albert said he was getting a dollar a mile。 阿尔伯特说他每英里挣一美元。 3)当定冠词the强调“这”“那”时,不宜省略。 Please give me the letter you received yesterday. 请把你昨天收到的那封信给我。

Ⅰ. Omission in English-Chinese Translation 省略法在英汉翻译中的运用
3、Omitting the Preposition and Prepositional Phrases 省略介词和介词短语
English is rich in prepositions and prepositional phrases, which play an important role in the language. They are generally translated into Chinese in one of the three ways other than prepositions or prepositional phrases: (1) into Chinese verbs; (2) into Chinese connective; (3) be omitted.

Smoking is prohibited in public places. 公共场所不许吸烟。
In July, 1956, Egypt had seized the Suez Canal。 1956年七月,埃及占领了苏伊士运河 。

Ⅰ. Omission in English-Chinese Translation 省略法在英汉翻译中的运用
注意:表示地点的介词在译文句首往往可以省略 ,但放在动词后面一般不省略。 Rumors had already spread along the streets and lanes. 大街小巷早就传遍了各种流言蜚语 。 She hid behind the door. 她躲在门后。 I stayed in my brother’s house. 我住在弟弟家里。

Ⅰ. Omission in English-Chinese Translation 省略法在英汉翻译中的运用
4、Omitting the Connective 省略连接词

Coordinate and subordinate clauses in Chinese construction are generally arranged in parataxis (意 合法), while those in English, in hypotaxis (形合法). In the former, one clause followed another in certain order with few or no lexical connectors, while in the latter there usually must be connectives, coordinating or subordinating, to join the clauses. Keeping in mind this basic difference between the two languages, a translator will find a way to avoid translationese in translation.

Ⅰ. Omission in English-Chinese Translation 省略法在英汉翻译中的运用
4、Omitting the Connective 省略连接词 If winter comes, can spring be far behind? 冬天来了,春天还会远吗?
After he packed up his things, he hurried to the station. 他收拾好行装,急忙奔向车站。

We knew spring was coming as (because) we had seen a robin.
我们看见了一只知更鸟,知道春天快要到了.

Ⅰ. Omission in English-Chinese Translation 省略法在英汉翻译中的运用
4、Omitting the Connective 省略连接词 He spoke so well that everybody was convinced of his innocence. 形合:他说得那么好听,以至每个人都相信他是无辜的。 意合:他说得那么好听,谁都相信他是无辜的。 When the news from the countryside reached the city, it caused immediately uproar among the gentry.
形合: 当消息从乡里传到城里来的时候,它马上在绅士 中引起了喧嚣。 意合: 乡里消息传到城里,绅士们立刻大哗。

Ⅰ. Omission in English-Chinese Translation 省略法在英汉翻译中的运用
5、Omitting the Verb 省略动词或分词 When the pressure gets low, the boiling point becomes low. 气压低,沸点就低。 Solids expand and contract as liquids and gases do. 如同液体和气体一样,固体也膨胀和收缩。 The last few years have seen positive developments in the international political scene, characterized by a spirit of accommodation. 过去几年,国际政治在和解的精神下有了积极的发展 。

Ⅰ. Omission in English-Chinese Translation 省略法在英汉翻译中的运用
Hence, television signals have a short range. 因此,电视信号的传送距离很短。

We are happy that you have got well.
你病好了,我们很高兴。

He behaved politely while answering the interviewer’s questions.
他在回答采访者的问题时,很有礼貌。

Ⅰ. Omission in English-Chinese Translation 省略法在英汉翻译中的运用
6、Omitting the Impersonal Pronoun “It” Outside it was pitch dark and it was raining cats and dogs. 外面一团漆黑,大雨倾盆。 It is a shame that you can’t come to our party. 你不能参加我们的宴会是一件憾事。 He made it clear that it was impossible for him to do so. 他表明了他不可能这样做。 -Who has leak out the secret? - It must be a big mouth. 一定是谁嘴快。

Ⅰ. Omission in English-Chinese Translation 省略法在英汉翻译中的运用
6、Omitting the Impersonal Pronoun “It” 强调句型中的“it” It was only then that I began to have doubts whether my story would ever be told. 只是在这个时候,我才开始怀疑,我的经历究竟能 不能公诸于众呢? It was with some difficulty that he found the way to his own house. 他费了不少劲才找到回家的路。

Ⅰ. Omission in English-Chinese Translation 省略法在英汉翻译中的运用
7、Omitting the Noun 省略名词 Perhaps you have overlooked the fact that your account for May purchases has not yet been settled. 也许你忘记了五月份的购货款还没有结算。 8、Omitting the Redundant Words 省略重复成分 The applicants who had worked would receive preference in getting the position over those who had not. 有工作经验的人优先录用。 Neither party shall cancel the contract without sufficient cause or reason. 双方均不得无故解除合同。

Time to Practice
We have 7 days in a week. Is it a he or a she? This is Brown speaking. There was no snow, the leaves were gone from the trees, and the grass was dead. Men perish, but the man shall endure; lives die but the life is not dead. He has been abroad so long; he feels rather out of it here. He doesn’t seem able to find anyone in common with. When we want to move a body of great mass we must apply a great force.

Time to Practice
We have 7 days in a week.

?一个星期有七天。
?生的是男孩还是女孩? ?我是布朗。
This is Brown speaking.
There was no snow, but the leaves were gone from the trees, and the grass was dead. Is it a he or a she?

?没有下雪,但叶落草枯。

Time to Practice
?人会死而人类永存;寿命有限而生命不绝。
Men perish, but the man shall endure; lives die but the life is not dead.
He has been abroad so long; he feels rather out of it here. He doesn’t seem able to find anyone in common with.

?他在国外住久了,在这里有点不习惯,好象跟
谁都说不到一块儿。

?要移动质量大的物体,就要用大力。

When we want to move a body of great mass we must apply a great force.

Ⅱ. Omission in Chinese- English Translation 省略法在汉英翻译中的运用
1、Omitting Redundant Words 省略不必要的重复、冗词之类的赘言 质子带正电,电子带负电,而中子既不带正电,也 不带负电。 A proton has a positive charge and an electron a negative charge, but a neutron has neither。 我已经提前完成了交给我的工作,他也提前完成了 交给他的工作。 I have fulfilled my assignment ahead of schedule, so has he.

Ⅱ. Omission in Chinese- English Translation 省略法在汉英翻译中的运用
2、Omitting Synonyms 省略同义词或近义词 汉语的同义词是很丰富的,而且同义词的重复在 汉语中十分普遍。为了加强语气,汉语习惯使用对称 结构,即两个词汇并列出现,指代相同或相似的意思 ,尤其是四字对偶词组,如残酷无情,铜墙铁壁,等 等。按西方人的思维习惯,汉语语言表达中同义反复 ,叠床架屋的现象就不符合逻辑,是英文表达的大忌 。因此,原文意思相同的重复性词语,译成英语时, 可以根据上下文情况,采取省略的翻译方法,按照英 语表达习惯,译出其中心意思,不必重复性的字字对 译。

Ⅱ. Omission in Chinese- English Translation 省略法在汉英翻译中的运用
2、Omitting Synonyms 残酷无情 残缺不全 繁荣昌盛 横行霸道 花言巧语 街谈巷议 筋疲力尽 崎岖不平 勘察探测 省略同义词或近义词

? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

cruel incomplete prosperity run wild/ tyrannize fine words gossip exhaustion rough explore

Ⅱ. Omission in Chinese- English Translation 省略法在汉英翻译中的运用
2、Omitting Synonyms 水深火热 随波逐流 贪官污吏 铜墙铁壁 土崩瓦解 咬牙切齿 油嘴滑舌 字斟句酌 自言自语 ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 省略同义词或近义词 in deep waters swim with the stream corrupt officials bastion of iron fall apart gnash one’s teeth glib tongue weigh every word talk to oneself

Ⅱ. Omission in Chinese- English Translation 省略法在汉英翻译中的运用
3、Omitting Words of Conceptual Category 省略概念范畴类词语 这类省略与英汉表达差异有关。汉语喜欢用一些概 念范畴类词语,谈到工作,就归入任务范畴,于是 便有了“工作任务”;谈到困难,就归入某种情况 ,于是便有了“困难情况”;谈到就业,觉得这是 一个问题,于是便有了“就业问题”。特别是“问 题”一词在很多情况下,其实并非什么problem, 而 是某一话题(topic) 罢了。

Ⅱ. Omission in Chinese- English Translation 省略法在汉英翻译中的运用
3、Omitting Words of Conceptual Category 省略概念范畴类词语

她的朋友们听到她家中的困难情况后,都主动 伸出援助之手。
After her friends heard about her family’s difficulties, they offered her a helping hand.

中国政府历来重视环境保护工作。
The Chinese government has always attached great importance to environmental protection.

Ⅱ. Omission in Chinese- English Translation 省略法在汉英翻译中的运用
4、Omitting Meticulous Description 省略过详的细节描述 汉语有些表达法约定俗成,带有强烈的民族文化色彩, 如照字面翻译成英语,会令读者百思不得其解。有些东 西,连中国读者自己也分辨不清楚,更不用说用英语在 译文中体现出来了。因此一些过详的细节描述在必要时 可考虑省略。 花园里面是人间的乐园,有的是吃不了的的大米白面, 穿不完的绫罗绸缎,花不完的金银财宝。 The garden was a paradise on earth, with more food and clothes than could be consumed and more money than could be spent.

Ⅱ. Omission in Chinese- English Translation 省略法在汉英翻译中的运用
4、Omitting Meticulous Description 省略过详的细节 描述
吃喝玩乐 柴米油盐 花草树木 笔墨纸砚 琴棋书画
?enjoy oneself /idle away one's time in pleasure-seeking

? daily necessities
? flowers and trees /plants ? stationery ? artistic accomplishment

Ⅱ. Omission in Chinese- English Translation 省略法在汉英翻译中的运用
4、Omitting Meticulous Description 省略过详的细节 描述 喜怒哀乐 诗词歌赋 魑魅魍魉 青红皂白
?the passions ? (forms of) poetry ? evil spirits ? right and wrong/the hows and whys of a matter

Ⅱ. Omission in Chinese- English Translation 省略法在汉英翻译中的运用
4、Omitting Meticulous Description 省略过详的细节 描述

不论你怎麽解释道,春夏秋冬的变化都是完 全不会改变的。
Whatever your explanation about Tao is, alteration of seasons is still unchangeable.

尽管你穿的是绫罗绸缎,戴的是珍珠翡翠, 你也不过是个女人而已。
Though dressed in silk and jewels, you are but a woman .

Ⅱ. Omission in Chinese- English Translation 省略法在汉英翻译中的运用
4、Omitting Meticulous Description 省略过详的细节 描述 我当时没有带锅碗瓢盆,所以没办法煮东西吃。 I'd not taken my pots and pans, so I couldn't cook anything.
狭长昏暗的楼道、一间间鸟笼似的小屋和过道、公用 厨房里锅碗瓢盆的碰撞声,共同构成了日常家庭生活 的主旋律。 The dim, long and narrow corridors, the cage-like rooms, and the colliding sounds of kitchen apparatus in the shared kitchen make up the theme of daily life.

Ⅱ. Omission in Chinese- English Translation 省略法在汉英翻译中的运用
5、省略汉语中没有实际意义的词语 汉语表达习惯于在形容词和动词前加上副词修辞, 例如,不管大小场合,常说“隆重开幕”,不管工 作性质,常说“胜利完成”,译成英语时是否需要 译成solemnly open 和finish victoriously 呢?实际 上,加不加副词在意义上并没有多大区别。副词只 起强调作用,或是为了阅读时朗朗上口,加强说话 者的语气。同样,在“真抓实干”、“切实加强” 、“认真执行”、“彻底粉碎”等副词+动词的短 语结构中,副词都没有实际意义。翻译时,这类没 有实际意义的词语可以省略。

Ⅱ. Omission in Chinese- English Translation 省略法在汉英翻译中的运用
5、省略汉语中没有实际意义的词语 在巴黎,名目繁多的酒会冷餐会是广交朋友的好 机会。 In Paris,cocktail parties and buffet receptions offer good opportunities for making friends.

Time to Practice
我们必须培养分析问题解决问题的能力。 每条河都有上游、中游、下游。 他把事情一五一十地都给父母讲了。 多年来那个国家一直存在严重的失业现象。 中国人民历来是勇于探索,勇于创造,勇于革 命的。 我昨天没有进城,一来是因为天气不好,二来 是我不舒服。

Time to Practice
我们必须培养分析问题解决问题的能力。 ? We must cultivate the ability to analyze and
solve problems.

每条河都有上游、中游、下游。 ? Every river has its upper, middle and lower
reaches.

他把事情一五一十地都给父母讲了。

? He told his parents the whole story exactly.

Time to Practice
多年来那个国家一直存在严重的失业现象。 ? For many years there has been serious unemployment in that country. 中国人民历来是勇于探索,勇于创造,勇于革命的。 ? The people of China have always been courageous enough to probe into things, to make inventions, and to make revolution.

我昨天没有进城,一来是因为天气不好,二来是我不 舒服。 ? I didn’t go to town yesterday both because of the bad weather and the fact that I was not feeling well.

Conclusion
? Conciseness is important to a written text.
? Unnecessary words waste the writer’s and the reader’s time, weakening and even spoiling the statement.

? Brevity is secured by cutting excess words.
? So long as the meaning of the version is accurate and clear, make it brief.

? Omission of words at the expense of meaning should also be avoided.

For Fun
Guess and Translate! (I) flash in the pan a good (bad) sailor a good man dry (wet) nurse sit above/below the salt worth one's salt sleep late doesn't hold water blow hot and cold a bull in a china shop pull the string turn over a new leaf on the rocks the outer man the inner man the odd man

For Fun
flash in the pan a good (bad) sailor

a good man
dry (wet) nurse sit above (below) the salt worth one's salt sleep late

doesn't hold water

? 昙花一现 ? 不晕船(晕船) ? 家长;丈夫 ? 保姆(奶妈) ? 在上(下)席 ? 称职 ? 睡懒觉 ? 不严密

For Fun
blow hot and cold

a bull in a china shop
pull the string turn over a new leaf on the rocks the outer man

the inner man
the odd man

? 摇摆不定 ? 鲁莽闯祸的 ? 幕后操纵 ? 改过自新 ? 处于困境 ? 人的外表 ? 人的灵魂 ? 投决定性一票的人

For Fun
Guess and Translate! (II)

in the red
in the black

a white lie a white elephant black tea blacklist

in the pink
in the blues a dark horse

brown sugar
brown bread blue blood green-eyed

a black horse
dark eyes black eyes

For Fun
in the red in the black in the pink in the blues

a dark horse
a black horse

dark eyes
black eyes

? 赤字,欠债 ? 盈利 ? 面色红润,健康 ? 忧郁,郁闷 ? 黑马 ? 毛皮黑色的马 ? 黑眼睛 ? 挨打后出现的黑眼圈

For Fun
a white lie
a white elephant black tea blacklist brown sugar

brown bread
blue blood

green-eyed

? 善意的谎言 ? 无用的物品 ? 红茶 ? 黑名单 ? 红糖 ? 黑面包 ? 贵族血统 ? 眼红嫉妒的


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