教育最新K122019高考英语一轮核心考点探究与练习 教材复习篇 Unit 3 Life in the future(含解析)新人教版

小学+初中+高中

Unit 3
【短文语法填空】

Life in the future
李仕才

Some people live in the world for body while others for dignity. I once 1. (take) a walk along the street on a Saturday dusk,with a Pepsi was living on collecting

can in my hand.An old woman in ragged clothes,2.

used cans,jars and tins,moved slowly towards me,with a bag on the back!3. (walk)nearer,she looked up at me and then fixed her eyes on my can.

At that time,I hadn’t finished my cola,so I gave her several coins instead. She stared at me for a few seconds and handed back the money.Quite 4. (confuse),I asked,“Why not?Isn’t that 5. “I am not a 6. you want?”

(beg),” she said seriously,word by word. (help)her,completely

Instantly,I felt so sorry.I had intended 7.

misunderstanding her.Thus I hurt her.What I could do at that moment was only to drink up the cola and handed her 8. with 9. emptied can.This time,she gave me a smile

(satisfy)and gratitude in her eyes.The woman is poor in (respect) as a man.I am not only moved but

material life but is so 10. also have learned a good lesson.

答案 1.took 2.who 3.Walking 4.confused 5.what 9.satisfaction 10.respectable

6.beggar 7.to help

8.the

(对应学生用书 P119)

lack vi.& vt.缺乏;没有 n.缺乏;短缺的东西 (1)lack sth.=lack for sth.缺乏…… (2)a/the lack of 缺乏…… have no lack of...不缺乏…… for/by/from/through lack of sth.因缺乏……;因没有……

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?lacking adj.短缺的;缺乏的 ? (3)? ?be lacking in 缺少 ?

①(教材原句)Hit by a lack of fresh air,my head ached. 由于缺乏新鲜的空气,我头痛。 ②His girlfriend thought that he must be a rich person __lacking__ (lack)for/who __lacked__ (lack) for nothing.In fact,he couldn’t afford to buy even a small flat for lack __of__ money.But he __lacked__ (lack) the courage to tell her the truth. 他的女朋友认为他是个什么都不缺的富人。事实上,因为没有钱,他甚至连很小的公寓也 买不起。但他一直缺乏告诉她真相的勇气。 ③(2016·江苏卷)Lack __of__ selfconfidence is his heel,I am afraid. 恐怕缺乏自信是他唯一的弱点。 ④单句语法填空(2017·江苏卷)This will compensate (弥补) for the __lack__ (lacking) of young work force.

lack 虽可用作及物动词,但不用于被动语态;lack 用作不及物动词时,常与介词 for 连 用;lack 用作名词时,常与介词 of 连用。 instant n.瞬间;片刻 adj.立即的;立刻的
? ?for an instant 一瞬间 (1)? ?in an instant(=immediately)立刻 ?

(2)in instant need of help 急需援助

(3)

? ? immediately/directly/instantly?一……就…… ? on/upon+n./doing ?
the instant(that)

①(教材原句)You place the metal band over your head,clear your mind,press the sending button,think your message and the next instant it’s sent. 你把这种金属带子放在你的头上, 排除杂念, 按下发送键, 集中精神想着你要传递的信息; 片刻功夫信息就发出去了。 ②(2016·江苏卷)Furthermore,voting on the Internet makes __instant__(instantly)feedback possible. 而且,网上选举可以使即时反馈成为可能。 ③Suddenly an earthquake hit the area of Ya’an,Sichuan province.__For__ an instant,all the buildings were in ruins.The victims were in __instant__ (instantly) need of help.People in the other provinces of China organized together spontaneously

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小学+初中+高中 to do what they can to help the victims __instantly/the instant__ (instant) they heard the bad news.__In__ an instant,hundreds of thousands of instant noodles were ready to be sent to the front. 突然一场地震袭击了四川省雅安地区。一瞬间所有的建筑都成为废墟。受伤者急需救助。 一听到这个不好的消息, 全国其它省份的人们自发地组织起来做了他们所能做的来帮助那些伤 者。立刻数以万计的速食面被准备好发送到前方。 require vt.需要;要求;命令;想要;务必 (1)meet/satisfy one’s requirement 达到/满足要求

? ?require 后可接that从句,从句中要用虚拟语气 (2)?(should+动词原形,should可省略) require doing/to be done 需要做 ? ?require sb.to do sth.要求某人做某事
require vt.需要 ①(教材原句)All the members are required to attend the meeting. 全部会员均要求出席会议。 ②The court __required__ (require) that he (should) pay the fine. 法院下令让他缴纳罚款。 ③This wall requires __repairing/to be repaired__ (repair). 这面墙需要修理了。 ④(2015·湖南卷)In my 8th grade,I was told that I had to take an art class as a graduation __requirement__ (require). ⑤单句语法填空(2017·全国卷Ⅰ)They __are required__ (require) to process the food that we eat, to recover from injury and for several other bodily functions.

(1)require that...;It’s required that..., “要求/命令……” ,从句用虚拟语气, 谓语动词用 should+动词原形,should 可省略。 (2)requirement 后面的表语从句和同位语从句用虚拟语气(should+动词原形,should 可以省略)。 【七选五】 Secret codes (密码) keep messages private. Banks, companies, and government agencies use secret codes in doing business, especially when information is sent by computer.

小学+初中+高中

小学+初中+高中 People have used secret codes for thousands of years. 1 Code breaking

never lags (落后) far behind code making. The science of creating and reading coded messages is called cryptography. There are three main types of cryptography. 2 For example, the first

letters of "My elephant eats too many eels" spell out the hidden message "Meet me." 3 You might represent each letter with a number, for example. Let’s

number the letters of the alphabet, in order, from 1 to 26. If we substitute a number for each letter, the message "Meet me" would read "13 5 5 20 13 5." A code uses symbols to replace words, phrases, or sentences. To read the message of a real code, you must have a code book. 4 For example, "bridge" might

stand for "meet" and "out" might stand for "me." The message "Bridge out" would actually mean "Meet me." 5

However, it is also hard to keep a code book secret for long. So codes must be changed frequently. A. It is very hard to break a code without the code book. B. In any language, some letters are used more than others. C. Only people who know the keyword can read the message. D. As long as there have been codes, people have tried to break them. E. You can hide a message by having the first letters of each word spell it out. F. With a code book, you might write down words that would stand for other words. G. Another way to hide a message is to use symbols to stand for specific letters of the alphabet. 【语篇解读】本文是一篇说明文,主要介绍了密码的设置和破解的方法。比如利用该 字母在字母表中排序的数字来代表该字母, 或者利用一些单词的首字母来组成一个密码等。 1.D 【解题思路】根据后面一句"Code breaking never lags(落后) far behind code making"可知,此空该选 D(只要有密码的存在,人们就会试图去破解它们)。 2.E 【解题思路】 根据后一句的"For example, the first letters of ‘My elephant eats

小学+初中+高中

小学+初中+高中 too many eels’ spell out the hidden message ‘Meet me.’"可知,此空该选 E(你可以拼写每个单词的第一个字母来隐藏信息)。 3.G 【解题思路】上一段介绍了第一种密码类型,本段介绍的是第二种类型,再根据空 后的内容可知, 空处选 G(另外一种隐藏信息的方式是用符号来代表字母表中的特定 字母)。 4.F 【解题思路】由前一句的"a code book"和空后的"’bridge’might stand for...’me.’"可知,此空该选 F(有了密码书,你就可以写下代表其他单词的单 词)。 5.A 【解题思路】本段介绍的是密码书,根据空后的转折可知,此处该选 A(没有密码书 是很难破解密码的)。

take up 占有(时间/空间);继续;开始;接受;拿起 take back 拿回;使回忆起 take down 拿下;记下;拆掉;病倒 take in 吸入;接待;改小;领会;注意到;包含;开始;欺骗 take on 呈现;雇用;承担;流行 take out 拿出;去掉;扣除;带……出去;发泄 take over 接收;盛行起来 take for 当作;误认为 ①(教材原句)I still cannot believe that I am taking up this prize that I won last year. 我仍然不能相信我是在接受这个去年获得的奖励。 ②(2015·陕西卷)Peter will take __up__ his post as the head of the travel agency at the end of next month. Peter 在这个月底将开始从事旅行社负责人的职位。 ③The teacher __took__ (take) up the lesson where he left off last week. 老师接着上星期停下来的地方把课讲下去。 ④单句语法填空(2017·天津卷)“The idea that the government would take __over__ driverless cars and treat them as a public good would get absolutely nowhere here, ” says Calo.

小学+初中+高中

小学+初中+高中 speed up 加速 at high/low/full/top speed 以高/低/全/最高速 ? ? (1)?at a speed of...对……速度 ? ?with all speed 尽快地
?reduce speed 减速 ? (2)? ? ?pick up speed 加速

①(教材原句)When we wanted the hovering carriage to speed up,we pressed down hard on the driving pedal and bent over in the direction we wanted to go. 当我们想让气垫车加速时,我们向下压踏板使它转向我们要去的方向。 ②He __sped__ (speed) his car through the street. 他开车飞速地穿过街道。 ③We must speed __up__ the pace of our economic reform. 我们必须加快经济改革的步伐。 【短文改错】 Friendship is very important to everyone,especially to me.Now,I would like to describe one of my best friends whose name are Petou.The first reason why I consider him as my best friend is because he has a very warm personality. He always smile politely at me, make me absolutely delighted when I meet him.What's more,honest is his good manner—he never lies me.In addition,he is the caring and compassionate friend.He's willing to help me whenever I have in trouble. The second reason is that Petou is really excellently.He excels at every subject, which makes me admire him very much. To summarize,Petou has a very good personality.Besides,he has a great ability to help other friends and him.I really like him. 【答案】 Friendship is very important to everyone,especially to me.Now,I would like to describe one of my best friends whose name him as my best friend is He always are Petou.The first reason why I consider is

because he has a very warm personality. that

smile make politely at me, me absolutely delighted when I meet smiles making

∧ honest him.What's more, is his good manner—he never lies to me.In addition,he is honesty

小学+初中+高中

小学+初中+高中 the caring and compassionate friend.He's willing to help me whenever I have i ﹨ n a trouble. The second reason is that Petou is really which makes me admire him very much. To summarize,Petou has a very good personality.Besides,he has a great ability to help other friends and him .I really like him. me excellently .He excels at every subject, excellent

第一处:are→is。考查主谓一致。whose 引导的定语从句的先行词是代词“one”,因此谓语 动词应该用单数。 第二处: because→that。 考查名词性从句。 主语为名词 reason, 表语从句中的连接词要用 that。 第三处:smile→smiles。考查动词时态和主谓一致。由后文“which makes me”可知,主句 应用一般现在时;主语为第三人称单数,谓语动词应该用单数。 第四处:make→making。考查非谓语动词。make 与前面的谓语动词之间无连词,故此处应用 现在分词短语作结果状语。 第五处:honest→honesty。考查名词。形容词不能作主语,应该用名词。 第六处:lies 后加 to。考查固定用法。lie to sb.意为“对某人说谎”。 第七处:the→a。考查冠词。此处表示他是一个热心并且有同情心的人,表示泛指,应该用不 定冠词。 第八处:删除 in。考查介词。句意:无论何时我有困难,他都愿意帮助我。have trouble 意 为“有困难”,in 多余。 第九处:excellently→excellent。考查形容词。作 is 的表语应该用形容词。 第十处:him→me。考查代词。Petou 能帮助别人也能帮助我。

__Exhausted__,I slid into bed and fell fast asleep. 我感到累极了,爬上床很快就睡着了。 exhausted 为形容词在句中作原因状语。形容词(短语)作状语修饰全句或说明主语的状 态,表示时间、原因、让步、结果、伴随状态或方式状语等。 形容词(短语)和分词(短语)作状语的语法功能: (1)表示原因,相当于一个原因状语从句。 (2)表示时间,相当于一个时间状语从句。

小学+初中+高中

小学+初中+高中 (3)表示方式,相当于一个副词。 (4)表示伴随,相当于一个并列句。 (5)表示让步,相当于一个让步状语从句。 ①__Determined__ (determine) to change his position,he gave up his hobbies and worked hard. 决心改变这种状况,他放弃了自己的爱好,努力工作。 ②Seriously __injured__ (injure),some of the passengers were sent to the nearest hospital at once. 因严重受伤,其中有些乘客被立刻送到最近的医院。 ③We arrived home very late,__safe__ (safely) and sound. 我们到家很晚,安然无恙。 ④He lay on the bed,__awake__ (wake). 他躺在床上,醒着。 ⑤(2015·四川卷)Little Tom sat __amazed__ (amaze) watching the monkey dancing in front of him. Well,now there’s __a system__ where the waste is disposed of using the principles of ecology. 现在,这里有一种装置,能利用生态学原理来处理掉废弃物。 当先行词为 system, case, point, position, situation, stage, activity, job, scene, condition 等词且关系词在从句中作状语时,常用 where 引导定语从句,有时 where 可用 in which 替换。 ①(2015·天津卷)The boss of the company is trying to create an easy atmosphere __where__ his employees enjoy their work. 公司老板正尽力创造一种轻松的气氛,在这种气氛中,其员工喜欢他们的工作。 ②All the neighbours admire this family,__where/in which__ the parents are treating their child like a friend. 邻居们都羡慕这个家庭,在这个家庭中父母对待孩子像朋友一样。 ③After graduation I’d like to find a job __where__ I can use what I have learnt at school. 毕业后我要找到一份能利用在学校所学知识的一份工作。

抽象地点名词后的定语从句中如果缺少主语或宾语则需要关系代词 that 或 which。 ④Today,we’ll discuss a number of cases __which/that__ beginners of English are likely to meet with. 小学+初中+高中

小学+初中+高中 今天,我们将讨论一些英语初学者可能遇到的情况。 ⑤Now there is just one point __that/which__ I wish you make quite clear. 现在只有一点我希望你弄清楚。 【阅读理解】 Pollution’s great effects on the environment have become more obvious in recent years, leading to a movement to promote energy efficiency(效率),less reliance on fossil(化石) fuels, and a reduction in air and water pollution. Most scientists agree that such changes are necessary to protect our environment from further harm. The construction industry consumes a large quantity of energy and resources and creates a huge amount of pollution. In the United States, building and development account for 39% of the country’s total energy use, 12% of total water consumption,68% of total electricity consumption and 38% of carbon dioxide emissions(二氧化碳排放), according to the Environment Protection Agency. Green buildings use less energy, water, create less waste, and are healthier to live, work, and go to school in than standard buildings. Builders of green buildings use techniques that use resources more efficiently during the entire building cycle—construction, restoration, operation, maintenance(维护)and demolition(拆 毁)—than those who construct more regular buildings. The environmental benefits of building green include the protection of ecosystems (生态系统)and biodiversity, improved air and water quality, less waste flowing into streams, and the protection of natural resources. Green buildings can also result in lower operating costs because they typically use less energy and fewer materials and improve indoor air quality, improving the health of people who live in such buildings. The process of building green includes technical and artistic planning with nature protection in mind. Building designs often reflect the surrounding environment and natural resources and use renewable building materials such as bamboo and straw. In addition, recycled resources found locally are used for green buildings, reducing the cost and air pollution associated with transporting materials over long distances. Careful site selection is important to minimize(最小化)human impact on the surrounding environment. For example, placing a structure in an area that allows it 小学+初中+高中

小学+初中+高中 to take advantage of cool breezes (微风) and sunlight can reduce energy use and expenses. More energy and expense are needed for larger buildings as well, so it is important to build small. Green roofs are another feature of green houses that reduce energy use and cost. These roofs are partly or completely covered with plants, which helps to keep heating and cooling costs, prevent water running off and deal with pollutants. Other features of green buildings often include energy and water conservation, recycling, and waste reduction. In addition, renewable energy sources such as solar power, hydropower (水能) and wind power are used for heat and electricity, which greatly reduces costs and decreases the impact on the environment. 1.What is the text mainly about? A. The necessity of promoting energy efficiency. B. The process of building green buildings. C. The benefits and features of green buildings. D. Green buildings effects on the environment. 2.According to the text, green buildings refer to the buildings that______. A. produce no waste B. only use clean energy C. are made of recycled materials D. use energy and resources more efficiently 3.Which of the following statements is TRUE about green buildings? A. They rely on fossil fuels and solar power for heat and electricity. B. Small buildings are less efficient in energy use than larger ones. C. The ecosystem has to be considered when building a green building. D. They are difficult to maintain and thus need more operating costs. 4.Why are green roofs used ? A. They fit the surrounding environment well B. They are cheaper than other kinds of roofs C. They can keep natural water for use in everyday life D. They can help to control the temperature in the building well 小学+初中+高中

小学+初中+高中 【文章大意】在本文中作者主要分析了 green building 的诸多好处和对环境的巨大的保 护作用,呼吁人们多建设这样的绿色的建筑。 1.C 【解析】主旨大意题。本文第三段中 Green buildings use less energy, water, create less waste, and are healthier to live, work, or go to school in than standard buildings. Green buildings use resources more properly during the entire building cycle than traditional building.和倒数第二段第一句 Green roofs are another feature of green houses that reduce energy use and cost.倒数第一段第 一句 Other features of green buildings often include energy and water conservation, recycling, and waste reduction.可知本文主要讲述的是 Green buildings 的很多的好处和特征。故 C 正确。

3.C 【解析】推理判断题。根据第四段第一句 The environmental benefits of building green include the protection of ecosystems(生态系统)and biodiversity, improved air and water quality, less waste flowing into streams, and the protection of natural resources.由此可知,建造绿色建筑时必须考虑生态系统。故选 C。 4.D 【解析】细节理解题。根据倒数第二段 These roofs are partly or completely covered with plants, which helps to keep heating and cooling costs, prevent water running off and deal with pollutants.可知,他们可以帮助控制大楼里的温度。故选 D。

小学+初中+高中


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