教育最新K122019高考英语一轮核心考点探究与练习 教材复习篇 Unit 4 Global warming(含解析)新人教版选修

小学+初中+高中

Unit 4
【短文语法填空】

Global warming
李仕才

Traditional Chinese culture is beginning to capture the attention of the world.Kung fu,1. (especial),has had a great effect 2. the millions of

people who first learned about China through it. From that,they may come to China and learn about some other 3. have long known about the cultures are 5. 4. (aspect) of this culture. Other Asian nations (great) of ancient Chinese culture.Their own

mix of native ones and those Chinese characteristics. Korea

and Japan long ago adopted Confucianism,something that continues today even as it 6. (challenge) by pop culture. This strength comes from the ideas 7. (give)

in the Four Books of Confucianism,which was built upon the ideas of an even 8. (much) ancient period codified(编纂) in the Five Classics.From them,the West learns 9. 10. is uniquely Chinese,for example,feng shui.So far China has taken steps (further) this spread of its culture by establishing Chinese Cultural

Centers in such places as the United States and Europe. 【解题导语】 本文是一篇说明文,介绍了中国文化对世界的影响。 1.especially 解析:考查副词。尤其是中国功夫,对于那些通过功夫初次了解中国

的数百万的人来讲,有着非常大的影响。especially“尤其是”,用于强调突出的人或者事 情。 2.on 解析:考查介词。have a(n)...effect on sb.“对某人有……影响”为固定

搭配,故填 on。 3.aspects 解析:考查名词单复数。他们可能会来到中国,学习了解中国文化的一些

其他方面。根据空前的“some other”及 aspect 作“方面,层面”讲时是可数名词可知, 此处应用 aspect 的复数形式 aspects。 4.greatness 解析:考查名词。其他亚洲国家很早以前就知道古代中国文化的博大。

根据空前的“the”及空后的“of”可知,此处应填名词 greatness。 5. a 解析: 考查冠词。 这些国家自身的文化是本土文化和中国特色(文化)的混合。 mix

在此作名词,意为“混合,结合”,是可数名词,且此处表示泛指,故用 a。 6.is challenged 小学+初中+高中 解析:考查动词的时态和语态。根据本文的基本时态为一般现在时

小学+初中+高中 可知,此处亦用一般现在时;it 在此指代上文中的“Confucianism”,和 challenge 之间 为被动关系,应用被动语态。故填 is challenged。 7.given 解析:考查过去分词。这种力量来自“四书”中所提供的观念。the ideas

与 give 之间为逻辑上的动宾关系,应用过去分词作后置定语。 8.more 解析:考查比较级。“四书”是依照“五经”的编纂中所体现的更为早期的

思想而著成的。根据句意及空前的“even”可知,此处应用比较级形式,故填 more。 9. what 解析: 考查名词性从句。 分析句子结构可知, 空处在此引导宾语从句, 作 learns

的宾语,空处在宾语从句中作主语,且此处表示“所……的事物”,故用 what。 10.to further 解析:考查非谓语动词。目前,中国已经采取措施进一步推广中国文

化。分析句子结构可知,空处在句中作目的状语,故应用不定式形式。further 在此用作动 词,意为“促进,增进”。

(对应学生用书 P149)

compare vt.& vi.比较,相比,比作 n.比较 (1)compare...with/to...把……和……比较 compare...to...把……比作…… compared to/with...与……比较起来(作状语) (2)comparison n.比较;对照 by/in comparison with 和……相比较 beyond compare 无与伦比;无可比拟 ①Don’t compare your disadvantages __with__ others’strong points. 不要拿自己的缺点与别人的优势相比。 ②__Compared__ (compare) to/with the place where I grew up,this town is much more exciting. 与我长大的地方相比,这个镇子热闹多了。 ③In __comparison__ (compare) with/Compared with your car,mine is very cheap. 和你的车相比我的很便宜。

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小学+初中+高中

compare 作状语时,如果与主语是主动关系,要用 comparing,与主语是被动关系,则用 compared。 ④__Comparing__ (compare) my work with his,I know mine is far from satisfactory. 把我的工作与他的相比,我知道我的工作远远不令人满意。 oppose vt.反对;反抗;与(某人)较量 (1)oppose(doing)sth.反对(做)某事 oppose sb.doing sth.反对某人做某事(强调动作) oppose sth.to/against sth.使某事物与另一事物对照或对抗 (2)opposed adj.反对的;对立的 be opposed to 反对……;与……对立(强调状态) ①(教材原句)On the other hand, there are those, like George Hambley, who are opposed to this view and believe that we should not worry about high levels of carbon dioxide in the air. 在另一方面,还有一些人,像科学家乔治·汉布利,反对上面的观点,他们认为我们不必 担心空气中会有高含量的二氧化碳。 ②The mother opposed her daughter’s __going__ (go) there alone. 那位母亲反对她女儿一个人去那儿。 ③Her parents strongly __opposed__ (oppose) her going abroad,which opposed her will __to/against__ her.So she was very sad,thinking it was her parents who were deliberately __opposed__ (oppose)to her. 她的父母极力反对她出国,这违背她的意愿。她很不高兴,并认为父母是故意和她对立。 average n.平均 adj.平均的 vi.& vt.平均为,算出……的平均数 an average of...……的平均数(后跟数词) on(the/an)average 平均 above/below(the)average 在一般水准以上/下 up to(the)average 达到平均水准 average sth.out 算出……的平均数 小学+初中+高中

小学+初中+高中 ①(教材原句)The greenhouse effect gives the earth’s surface the average temperature of 15 ℃. 温室效应使得地球表面的平均温度达到了 15℃。 ②(2015·重庆卷)Last year was the warmest year on record,with global temperature 0.68 ℃ __above__ the average. 去年是有纪录以来最热的一年,全球平均气温上升 0.68 度。 ③There were 90 students getting full marks in the exam,__an__ average of 18 students in each class.Tom’s was above average while John’s was __below__ average. 在这次考试中有 90 个同学得到了满分, 每个班级平均有 18 人。 汤姆的成绩在平均水平之 上,而约翰的成绩在平均水平之下。 ④单句语法填空(2017·江苏卷)In 1900,people died __at__ the average age of 30.By 2000 __the__ average age was 65. 【七选五】 By 2025,water shortage will be a big problem for about 1.8 billion people.In a world where water resource is increasingly short,nations cannot afford to waste it.__1__After we use water in our homes and businesses,it is washed away,and takes many valuable resources with it. Waste water is rich in carbon and nutrients.__2__ A number of nations and major cities have already built waste water treatment plants.They can effectively recover nutrients and bioenergy,and produce “new water” that can be reused.But more than 80% of all waste water still currently flows into natural ecosystems,polluting the environment and taking valuable nutrients and other recoverable materials with it. __3__ This is still better than the situation in smaller cities.In Latin American countries,those living in small and medium?sized cities at most treat it in the form of septic tanks (化粪池)that lack regular and proper maintenance. Imagine that outside one of these small cities lies a lovely piece of land: on the surface it is pleasingly built and provides habitats for local wildlife.Beneath the surface is a wetland that treats waste water and produces energy.The energy produced saves families from having to use firewood collected in the wild.This is not a dream project.__4__ A team of scientists have been looking into the potential of constructed wetland environments.Having analyzed 800 examples of biomass in more than 20 countries,they found that,depending on climate and the type of plant used in the construction of this type of wetland,up to 45 hectares of land could be irrigated with waste water.__5__ 小学+初中+高中

小学+初中+高中 A.But that is exactly what we do. B.This can provide easy access to clean water. C.There is no longer any good reason to waste any type of water. D.A constructed wetland environment is already in practice on a small scale. E.This would reduce the need for fresh water for irrigation and energy for pumping. F. If collected and treated properly, it could provide “new water”, fertilizer, and energy. G. Although waste water systems in large cities are effective, the whole procedure usually costs much. 【解题导语】 本文是一篇说明文, 主要介绍了当前世界水资源的现状以及有效利用水资 源的方法。 1.A 上文说在水资源短缺的大环境下,很多国家不能承担浪费(的后果),下文说我们 用完水后, 就直接把水冲走。 根据上下文可知, A 项“但是那正是我们所做的”与此处匹配, 起承上启下作用,故选 A。 2.F 上文说废水富含碳元素和养分,而 F 项说如果收集和处理得当,它就能提供“新 的水”、肥料和能量,前后形成语义上的衔接,故选 F。 3.G 下文讲述的是拉丁美洲的中小城市的废水处理系统缺乏常规和合适的维护,而 G 项提到大城市的废水处理系统有效但成本高,与本段内容吻合,故选 G。 4. D 上文提到在这些小城市建造湿地环境的设想, 下文提到已经有科学家在研究建造 的湿地环境的潜力了,由此可知,D 项“建造的湿地环境已经在小范围的实践中了”符合语 境。 5. E 上文讲述的是这种解决方案的另一种好处是人们可以用废水灌溉农田, 而 E 说这 可以减少用淡水灌溉的需求及抽水所需的能量,前后语义衔接,故选 E。

on behalf of...代表……一方;作为……的代言人 (1)on behalf of sb.=on sb.’s behalf;其中的 on 也可用 in 来代替。 (2)on sb.’s behalf 除了表示“代表某人”之外,还可以表示“因为/为了某人;为了 某人的利益”等。 ①(教材原句)I am doing a project on behalf of my school about global warming. 我正代表学校做一项关于全球变暖的课题研究。 ②__On__ behalf of everyone here,I wish you a pleasant journey back to your country. 小学+初中+高中

小学+初中+高中 我谨代表在座每一个人祝你们归途愉快。 result in 导致;造成(后接结果);引起 (1)result in(=cause)引起;导致;造成(后接结果) result from 由于……而引起(后接原因) (2)as a result 结果 as a result of/as a consequence of 作为……的结果;由于 with the result that...其结果是…… without result 没有结果;白费 ①(教材原句)They also agree that it is the burning of more and more fossil fuels that has resulted in this increase in carbon dioxide. 他们还赞同下述观点:正是由于越来越多地燃烧化石燃料导致了二氧化碳的增加。 ②Global warming results __from__ the burning of fossil fuels,such as petroleum products,__resulting__ (result) in the release of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. 全球变暖是燃烧石油等矿物燃料引起的,从而导致了温室气体被排放到大气中。 ③Failure results __from__ laziness and hard work results __in__ success. 失败源于懒惰,努力工作可导致成功。 【短文改错】 假定英语课上老师要求同桌之间交换修改作文, 请你修改你同桌写的以下作文。 文中共有 10 处语言错误,每句中最多有两处。每处错误仅涉及一个单词的增加、删除或修改。 增加:在缺词处加一个漏字符号(∧),并在其下面写出该加的词。 删除:把多余的词用斜线(\)划掉。 修改:在错的词下画一横线,并在该词下面写出修改后的词。 注意:1.每处错误及其修改均仅限一词; 2.只允许修改 10 处,多者(从第 11 处起)不计分。 (2018·福州市高三毕业班适应性练习) Dear Ben, As graduation is draw near,I'd like to express my sincere gratitude to you for your kind. In the last three years,you had shared my joys and sorrows,making my school life unforgettable.I remember very much that you sent me to hospital when I had my left leg break.During the days when I had to stay in the bed,you comforted me and helped me my lessons.It is your friendship which fills my life with sunshine.I hope my friendship will last forever and I also hope all your dreams will come truly in the 小学+初中+高中

小学+初中+高中 future. Best wishes! Yours, Li Hua 【答案】 Dear Ben, As graduation is draw near,I'd like to express my sincere gratitude to you for
drawing

your kind .
kindness

In the last three years,you had shared my joys and sorrows,making my school life
have

unforgettable.I remember very much that you sent me to hospital when I had my left
well

leg break.During the days when I had to stay in
broken

the

bed,you comforted me and helped

me ∧ my lessons.It is your friendship which fills my life with sunshine.I hope my
with that our

friendship will last forever and I also hope all your dreams will come truly in the
true

future. Best wishes! Yours, Li Hua 第一处:draw 改为 drawing。考查动词的时态。句意:随着毕业的临近,我想对你的善意 表示由衷的感激。根据语境可知,该处用现在进行时表示按即将发生的动作。 第二处:kind 改为 kindness。考查名词。根据形容词性物主代词“your”可知,该处用 名词形式。 第三处:had 改为 have。考查动词的时态。根据该句的时间状语“In the last three years”可知,此处表示动作从过去延续到现在并有可能延续下去,故用现在完成时。句意: 在过去的三年时间里,你分享了我的快乐和忧伤,让我的学校生活令人难忘。 第四处:much 改为 well。考查副词。句意:我清楚地记得,当我的左腿受伤时,你将我 送到医院。由句意可知,该处表示“清楚地记得”,故将 much 改为 well。 第五处: break 改为 broken。 考查过去分词。 leg 和动词 break 之间是逻辑上的动宾关系, 所以用 have sth.done 结构,故用过去分词。 第六处:删除 the。考查冠词。in bed 为固定用法,意为“卧病在床”,故删除 the。 第七处:在 my 前加 with。考查介词。句意:在我不得不卧病在床的那些天里,你安慰我 并帮我补习功课。help sb.with lessons 为固定搭配,意为“帮助某人补习功课”,故在 my 小学+初中+高中

小学+初中+高中 前加 with。 第八处:which 改为 that。考查强调句型。句意:是你的友谊让我的生命充满了阳光。分 析该句结构可知, 该句为强调句, 被强调的部分是“your friendship”, 故将 which 改为 that。 知识储备: 强调句型的结构是: It is(was)+被强调部分+that (who)+句子的其他成分。 被强调部分可以是主语,宾语,表语或状语。强调的主语如果是人,可以由 who 代替 that。 第九处:my 改为 our。考查代词。句意:我希望我们的友谊长存,我还希望你所有的梦想 在将来都成为现实。根据句意可知,该处表示“我们的友谊”,故应用 our。 第十处:truly 改为 true。 考查形容词。come true 为固定搭配, 意为“成为现实”,come 在此处为系动词,后接形容词。

It is OK to leave an electrical appliance on __so long as__ you are using it—if not,turn it off! 只要你在使用电器设备,你便可以把它开着,如果不用就把它关掉! so/as long as“只要” ,引导条件状语从句。 (1)引导条件状语从句的从属连词有:if,unless(=if...not 如果不……;除非),as/so long as(只要), while(=as long as 只要), supposing(that)/provided/providing(that)(假 如),in case(假使),on condition that(在……的条件下)等等。 (2)as far as 至于,直到,远到;就……而言 as many as 多达……(与可数名词复数连用) as much as 多达……(与不可数名词连用) as well as 既……又……;除……之外(也);此外 as good as 几乎,实际上;无异;不亚于 ①(2015·北京卷)You won’t find paper cutting difficult as __long__ as you keep practicing it. 只要你不断练习,你不会觉得剪纸很难。 ②As __far__ as I can see,there is only one possible way out. 就我所知,仅有一种可行的方法(可以解除困境)。 ③It promotes friendship as __well__ as trade. 它不但促进贸易,而且增进友谊。 ④I bought a secondhand chair which is as __good__ as new. 我买了一把二手椅子,它如同新的一样。

(1)as long as 还有一个意思“……之久” ,如: 小学+初中+高中

小学+初中+高中 Stay as long as you like.你想在这里呆多久就呆多久。 (2)so long 在口语中表示“再见” ,相当于 goodbye。 【阅读理解】 Facing increasing pressure to raise students' scores on standardized tests, schools are urging kids to work harder by offering them obvious encouragements. Happy Meals are at the low end of the scale. With the help of businesses, schools are also giving away cars, iPods, seats to basketball games, and — in a growing number

of cases — cold, hard cash. The appeal of such programs is obvious, but the consequences of tying grades to goods are still uncertain. It's been a common tradition in middle?class families to reward top grades with cash as a way to teach that success in school leads to success in life. But for many disadvantaged minority children, the long?term benefits of getting an education are not so clear, according to experts. No one knows for sure how well cash and other big?ticket rewards work in education in the long run. But there are plenty of concerns that this kind of practice could have negative effects on kids. Virginia Shiller, a clinical psychologist, says that it's worth experimenting with cash encouragements but that tying them to success on a test is not a worthwhile goal. “I'd rather see rewards based on effort and responsibility — things that will lead to success in life,” she says. Even if rewards don't lead to individual achievement on a test, they could have a meaningful effect in the school. Charles McVean, a businessman and philanthropist (慈善家), started a tutoring program which pays higher?achieving students $10 an hour to tutor struggling classmates and divides them into teams. During the course of the year, students bond and compete. The team posting the highest math scores wins the top cash prize of $100. McVean calls the combination of peer (同龄人) tutoring, competition,and cash encouragements a recipe for “nothing less than magic”. For its part, the Seminole County Public Schools system in Florida plans to continue its report card encouragement program through the rest of the school year. The local McDonald's restaurants help the poor district by paying the $1,600 cost of printing the report card. Regina Klaers, the district spokeswoman, says most parents don't seem bothered by the Happy Meals rewards. “There are many ways we

try to urge students to do well, and sometimes it's through the stomach, and sometimes it's the probability of students winning a car,” she says. “One size doesn't fit

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小学+初中+高中 all.” 【文章大意】 本文是一篇议论文, 主要论述了物质奖励对学生的成绩是否有促进作用。 【长难句分析】It's been a common tradition in middle?class families to reward top grades with cash as a way to teach that success in school leads to success in life.(第一段倒数第二句) 分析:这是一个复合句。本句中 It 作形式主语,to reward top grades with cash...in life 作真正的主语;that 引导的宾语从句作 teach 的宾语。 译文: 给取得最高分的人现金奖励, 作为教导他们在学校里的成功可以通向生活中的成 功的一种方式,这已经成为中产家庭中的惯例。 1. According to the text, it is a common practice for schools to ________. A.offer free meals to students with high scores B.tie students' grades to material rewards C.educate students to form a business sense D.cooperate with business to improve teaching 答案与解析:B'考查推理判断。 【关键句】With the help of businesses, schools are also giving away cars, iPods, seats to basketball games, and—in a growing number of cases—cold,hard cash.(第 一段第三句) 译文:在企业的帮助下,学校也在发放汽车、iPod 和篮球赛的门票,发放现金的情况 也在增加。 根据关键句及下一句中的“tying grades to goods”可推断出,将学生的成绩与物质 奖励联系起来已成了学校的一个惯例。故选 B。 2. According to the text, the long?term results of giving rewards in education are ________. A.negative C.uncertain B.optimistic D.disappointing students cash as

答案与解析:C'考查细节理解。 【关键句】No one knows for sure how well cash and other big?ticket rewards work in education in the long run.(第二段第一句) 译文:没有人能肯定从长远来看现金和其他昂贵奖品会对教育产生怎样的作用。 根据关键句可知,给学生现金作为奖励在教育中产生的长远结果还不确定。A 项意为 “消极的”;B 项意为“乐观的”;C 项意为“不确定的”;D 项意为“令人失望的”。故 选 C。 3.The tutoring program run by Charles McVean ________. 小学+初中+高中

小学+初中+高中 A.hires some excellent teachers to teach the struggling students B.has a meaningful effect in inspiring students' enthusiasm on study C.is a program combining tutoring, competition and future job offers D.rewards the student with the highest scores with cash prize of $100 答案与解析:B'考查推理判断。 【关键句】Even if rewards don't lead to individual achievement on a test, they could have a meaningful effect in the school.(第三段第一句) 译文:即使奖励对个人考试成绩没有作用,但它们会对学校产生一种重要的影响。 根据关键句及其后面列举的 Charles McVean 的辅导项目可推知, 本段用 Charles McVean 的辅导项目来说明奖励对激发学生的学习热情有重要影响。故选 B。 4.We can learn that in Seminole County ________. A.there are various ways to inspire students to study hard B.many parents are not satisfied with the Happy Meals rewards C.the local McDonald's restaurants provide the rewards for poor students D.people are searching for a good?for?all method to urge students to do well 答案与解析:A'考查细节理解。 【关键句】There are many ways we try to urge students to do well, and sometimes it's through the stomach, and sometimes it's the probability of students winning a car...(最后一段倒数第二句) 译文:我们尝试了许多方法来敦促学生努力学习,有时通过填饱他们的肚子,有时学生 可能会赢得一辆汽车…… 根据关键句可知,Seminole County 有各种各样鼓励学生努力学习的方法。故选 A。

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