ASTM A494A494M-09 镍和镍合金铸件的标准规范_图文

Designation: A 494/A 494M – 09

Standard Speci?cation for Castings, Nickel and Nickel Alloy1
This standard is issued under the ?xed designation A 494/A 494M; the number immediately following the designation indicates the year of original adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision. A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval. A superscript epsilon (?) indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval.
This standard has been approved for use by agencies of the Department of Defense.

1. Scope*
1.1 This speci?cation covers nickel, nickel-copper, nickelcopper-silicon, nickel-molybdenum, nickel-chromium, and nickel-molybdenum-chromium alloy castings for corrosionresistant service.
1.2 The values stated in either SI units or inch-pound units are to be regarded separately as standard. The values stated in each system may not be exact equivalents; therefore, each system shall be used independently of the other. Combining values from the two systems may result in non-conformance with the standard.
2. Referenced Documents
2.1 ASTM Standards:2 A 370 Test Methods and De?nitions for Mechanical Testing
of Steel Products A 488/A 488M Practice for Steel Castings, Welding, Quali-
?cations of Procedures and Personnel A 732/A 732M Speci?cation for Castings, Investment, Car-
bon and Low Alloy Steel for General Application, and Cobalt Alloy for High Strength at Elevated Temperatures A 781/A 781M Speci?cation for Castings, Steel and Alloy, Common Requirements, for General Industrial Use E 8 Test Methods for Tension Testing of Metallic Materials E 29 Practice for Using Signi?cant Digits in Test Data to Determine Conformance with Speci?cations E 30 Test Methods for Chemical Analysis of Steel, Cast Iron, Open-Hearth Iron, and Wrought Iron3 E 38 Methods for Chemical Analysis of Nickel-Chromium and Nickel-Chromium-Iron Alloys3
1 This speci?cation is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee A01 on Steel, Stainless Steel and Related Alloys and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee A01.18 on Castings.
Current edition approved May 1, 2009. Published May 2009. Originally approved in 1963. Last previous edition approved in 2008 as A 494/A 494M – 08.
2 For referenced ASTM standards, visit the ASTM website, www.astm.org, or contact ASTM Customer Service at service@astm.org. For Annual Book of ASTM Standards volume information, refer to the standard’s Document Summary page on the ASTM website.
3 Withdrawn. The last approved version of this historical standard is referenced on www.astm.org.

E 76 Test Methods for Chemical Analysis of Nickel-Copper Alloys3
E 354 Test Methods for Chemical Analysis of HighTemperature, Electrical, Magnetic, and Other Similar Iron, Nickel, and Cobalt Alloys
3. Terminology
3.1 De?nitions: 3.1.1 master heat—a single furnace charge of re?ned alloy, which may either be poured directly into castings or into remelt alloy for individual melts. 3.1.2 melts—a single furnace charge poured into castings. When master heats are used to prepare melts, a melt analysis shall be reported.
4. General Conditions for Delivery
4.1 Material furnished to this speci?cation shall conform to the requirements of Speci?cation A 781/A 781M, including any supplementary requirements that are indicated in the purchase order. Failure to comply with the general requirements of Speci?cation A 781/A 781M constitutes nonconformance with this speci?cation. In case of con?ict between the requirements of this speci?cation and Speci?cation A 781/ A 781M, this speci?cation shall prevail.
5. Ordering Information
5.1 Orders for castings to this speci?cation should include the following information:
5.1.1 Quantity, in pieces, and 5.1.2 Grade designation (Table 1) and class (Table 2). 5.2 The purchaser shall specify any of the following information required to describe adequately the desired material: 5.2.1 Heat-treat condition (see 6.1 and 6.2), 5.2.2 Repair welding (see Section 11) 5.2.3 Source inspection requirements, if any (see Speci?cation A 781/A 781M), 5.2.4 Marking-for-identi?cation requirements, if any (see 13.1), and 5.2.5 Supplementary requirements desired, including the standards of acceptance.

*A Summary of Changes section appears at the end of this standard.
Copyright ? ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959, United States.
1

A 494/A 494M – 09
2

TABLE 1 Chemical Requirements

NOTE—Values are maximum unless otherwise indicated.

Alloy

Ni

Family

Ni-Cu

Ni-Mo

Ni-Cr

Grade CZ100 M25S M30CA M30H M35-1A M35-2 N3M N7M N12MV CU5MCuC CW2M CW6M CW6MC CW12MW CX2M CX2MW CY40

UNS N02100 N24025 N24130 N24030 N24135 N24020 J30003 J30007 N30012 Numbers

N08826

N26455 N30107 N26625 N30002 N26059 N26022 N06040

Composition, %

C, max 1.00

Mn, max 1.50

Si, max 2.00

P, max 0.03

S, max 0.03

Cu

1.25

max

Mo

...

Fe

3.00

max

Ni

95.00

min

Cr

...

Cb (Nb) . . .

W

...

V

...

Bi

...

Sn

...

0.25 1.50 3.5-4.5 0.03 0.03 27.0-33.0 ... 3.50 max balance

0.30

0.30

0.35

1.50

1.50

1.50

1.0-2.0 2.7-3.7 1.25

0.03

0.03

0.03

0.03

0.03

0.03

26.0-33.0 27.0-33.0 26.0-

33.0

...

...

...

3.50

3.50

3.50

max

max

max

balance balance balance

0.35

0.03

1.50

1.00

2.00

0.50

0.03

0.040

0.03

0.030

26.0-33.0 . . .

...
3.50 max balance

30.033.0 3.00 max balance

0.07
1.00
1.00
0.040
0.030
...
30.033.0 3.00 max balance

0.12 1.00 1.00 0.040 0.030 ... 26.0-30.0 4.0-6.0
balance

0.050 max 1.0 max 1.0 max 0.030 max 0.030 max 1.50-3.50
2.5-3.5
balance
38.0-44.0

0.02

0.07

0.06

0.12

0.02

0.02 0.40

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00 1.50

0.80

1.00

1.00

1.00

0.50

0.80 3.00

0.03

0.040 0.015

0.040 0.020 0.025 0.03

0.03

0.030 0.015

0.030 0.020 0.025 0.03

B

B

B

B

B

B

B

15.0-17.5
2.0 max
balance

17.0- 8.0-10.0

20.0

3.0

5.0

max

max

balance balance

16.018.0 4.5-7.5
balance

15.0-16.5 12.5-

14.5

1.50

2.0-6.0

max

balance balance

B
11.0 max
balance

...

...

...

...

...

1.0

1.0

1.00

19.5-23.5 15.0-17.5 17.0- 20.0-23.0 15.5- 22.0-24.0 20.0- 14.0-17.0

20.0

17.5

22.5

B

1.0-3.0 B

0.5

0.5

...

...

...

0.60-1.20 B

B

3.15-4.50 B

B

B

B

max

max

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

B

1.0

B

B

3.75-

B

2.5-3.5 B

max

5.25

...

...

...

...

...

B

B

0.20-0.60 B

B

B

B

0.20-

B

0.35

B

0.40

max

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

A Order M35-1 or M30C when weldability is required. BElement to be analyzed and reported for information only.

Other
CY5SnBiM N26055
0.05 1.5 0.5 0.03 0.03 ... 2.0-3.5 2.0 max
balance 11.0-14.0 ... ... ... 3.0-5.0 3.0-5.0

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A 494/A 494M – 09
TABLE 2 Heat Treat Requirements

Grade

Heat Treatment

CZ100, M35-1, M35-2, CY40 Class 1, M30H, M30C, M25S Class 1, CY5SnBiM M25S, Class 2A
M25S, Class 3 N12MV, N7M, N3M CW12MW, CW6M, CW6MC, CW2M CY40, Class 2 CX2MW CU5MCuC
CX2M

As cast
Load into furnace at 600°F [315°C] maximum. Heat to 1600°F [870°C] and hold for 1 h plus an additional 30 min for each 1?2 in. [13 mm] of cross section over 1 in.B Cool to 1300°F [705°C]C and hold at temperature for 30 min then quench in oil to room temperature. Load into furnace at 600°F [315°C] maximum. Heat slowly to 1100°F [605°C] and hold to develop maximum hardness. Furnace or air cool to room temperature. Heat to 2000°F [1095°C] minimum, hold for sufficient time to heat castings to temperature, quench in water or rapid cool by other means. Heat to 2150°F [1175°C] minimum, hold for sufficient time to heat castings to temperature, quench in water or rapid cool by other means. Heat to 1900°F [1040°C] minimum, hold for sufficient time to heat castings to temperature, quench in water or rapid cool by other means. Heat to 2200°F [1205°C] minimum, hold for sufficient time to heat castings to temperature, quench in water or rapid air cool by other means. Heat to 2100°F [1150°C] minimum, hold for sufficient time to heat castings to temperature, quench in water. Stabilize at 1725-1815°F [940-990°C], hold for sufficient time to heat castings to temperature, quench in water or rapid cool by other means. Heat to 2100°F [1150°C] minimum, hold for sufficient time to heat castings to temperature, quench in water or rapid air cool by other means.

A M25S, while machinable in the “as-cast” condition, is capable of being solution treated for improved machinability. It may be subsequently age hardened to the
hardness speci?ed in Table 3 and ?nished machined or ground. B For cross sections over 6 in. [125 mm], it may be necessary to increase the hold time if maximum softness is desired. C For maximum softness and the least variation in hardness levels, castings should be transferred from an oven at 1600°F [870°C] to a second oven at 1300°F [705°C].

6. Heat Treatment
6.1 Castings shall be heat treated in accordance with the requirements in Table 2.
NOTE 1—Proper heat treatment of these alloys is usually necessary to enhance corrosion resistance and, in some cases, to meet mechanical properties. Minimum heat-treat temperatures are speci?ed; however, it is sometimes necessary to heat treat at higher temperatures, hold for some minimum time at temperature, and then rapidly cool the castings in order to enhance the corrosion resistance and meet mechanical properties.
6.2 When Class 1 is speci?ed, grades CY40 and M25S shall be supplied in the as-cast condition. When Class 2 is speci?ed, grades CY40 and M25S shall be supplied in the solutiontreated condition. When Class 3 is speci?ed, grade M25S shall be supplied in the age-hardened condition.
7. Chemical Composition
7.1 These alloys shall conform to the chemical composition requirements prescribed in Table 1.
7.2 The grades that pertain to this speci?cation are placed into the ?ve general categories given below. The producer shall report for information all elements in Table 1 for which a limit is given for any alloy in the same alloy family. The alloy families are:
(1) Nickel – CZ100 (2) Nickel-copper – M35-1, M35-2, M30C, M30H, M25S (3) Nickel-molybdenum – N12MV, N7M, N3M (4) Nickel-chromium – CY40, CW6M, CW2M, CW6MC, CX2MW, CU5MCuC, CX2M (5) Other – CY5SnBiM 7.3 An analysis of each master heat shall be made by the manufacturer to determine the percentages of the elements speci?ed in Table 1. The analysis shall be made from a representative sample taken during the pouring of the master heat. Chemical composition shall be reported to the purchaser or his representative.

7.4 Test Methods E 76 or Test Methods E 354 shall be used for referee purposes. Test Methods E 30 or Methods E 38 shall be used if Test Methods E 76 or Test Methods E 354 do not include a method for some element present in the material.
8. Tensile Properties
8.1 One tension test shall be made from each master heat except for grades M25S and CY5SnBiM when the master heat is used to pour the castings. One tension test shall be made from each melt except for grades M25S and CY5SnBiM. Test results shall conform to the tensile requirements speci?ed in Table 3. Test bars shall be poured in special blocks from the same heat as the castings represented.
8.2 The bar from which the test specimen is taken shall be heat treated in production furnaces to the same procedure as the castings it represents. If the castings are not heat treated, the bar used for the test specimen must not be heat treated.
8.3 Test specimens may be cut from castings, at the producer’s option, instead of from test bars.
8.4 When castings are produced by methods other than investment process, tension test coupons shall be machined to the form and dimension shown in Fig. 8 of, and tested in accordance with, Test Methods E 8.
8.4.1 When castings are produced by the investment process, test specimens in accordance with Speci?cation A 732/ A 732M shall be used for measurement of tensile properties.
8.5 If any specimen shows defective machining or develops ?aws, it may be discarded and another substituted from the same heats.
8.6 To determine conformance with the tension test requirements, an observed value or calculated value shall be rounded in accordance with Practice E 29 to the nearest 500 psi [3.5 MPa] for yield and tensile strength and to the nearest 1 % for elongation and reduction of area.

3

A 494/A 494M – 09

TABLE 3 Mechanical Properties

Alloy

Ni

Family

Ni-Cu

Ni-Mo

Ni-Cr

Other

CZ100 M25S M30C M30H M35-1 M35-2 N3M N7M N12MV CU5- CW2M CW6M CW6MC CW- CX2M CX2MW CY40 CY5S-

MCuC

12MW

nBiM

Tensile strength, 50

min, ksi [MPa]

[345]

Yield strength,

18

min, ksi [MPa]

[125]

Elongation in 2 in. 10

[50 mm],A min, %

Hardness HB

...

... 65 100 65 65 76 76 76 [450] [690] [450] [450] [525] [525] [525]
... 32.5 60 25 30 40 40 40 [225] [415] [170] [205] [275] [275] [275]
... 25 10 25 25 20.0 20 6

75 [520] 35 [240] 20

72 [495] 40 [275] 20

72 [495] 40 [275] 25

70 [485] 40 [275] 25

B

...

...

...

... ... ...

...

...

...

...

...

72 72 80

70

...

[495] [495] [550] [485]

40 39 45

28

...

[275] [270] [310] [195]

4

40 30

30

...

...

...

...

...

...

A When ICI test bars are used in tensile testing as provided for in Speci?cation A 732/A 732M, the gage length to reduced section diameter ratio shall be 4 to 1. B 300 HB minimum for the age hardened condition.

9. Workmanship, Finish, and Appearance
9.1 Critical surfaces of all castings intended for corrosionresistant service shall be cleaned. Cleaning may be accomplished by blasting with clean sand or metallic corrosionresistant shot or by other approved methods.
10. Quality
10.1 The castings shall not be peened, plugged, or impregnated to stop leaks.
10.2 Internal chills and chaplets may be used in the manufacture of castings. However, the chills, chaplets and affected cast material must be completely removed.
11. Repair by Welding
11.1 Repairs shall be made by using a welding procedure and operators capable of producing sound welds. The composition of deposited weld metal shall be similar to that of the castings.
11.2 Weld repairs shall be considered major in the case of a casting that has leaked on hydrostatic test or when the depth of the cavity after preparation for repair exceeds 20 % of the actual wall thickness, or 1 in. [25 mm], whichever is smaller, or when the extent of the cavity exceeds approximately 10 in.2[65 cm2]. All other weld repairs shall be considered minor. Major and minor weld repairs shall be subject to the same quality standards as are used to inspect the castings.
11.3 Castings of M30H, M25S, and CY5SnBiM may not be weld repaired.
11.4 Grades N12MV, N7M, N3M, CW12MW, CW6M, CW2M, CX2MW, CX2M, CW6MC, and CU5MCuC may require post-weld heat treatment after major weld repairs. If post-weld heat treatment is required, it must be speci?ed along with the grade. If required, it shall be performed in accordance with Section 6.

11.5 For grade CU5MCuC, the composition of the deposited weld metal shall be similar to that of AWS A5.14 ER NiCrMo3 or AWS A5.11 E NiCrMo3.
12. Rejection and Rehearing
12.1 Samples that represent rejected material shall be preserved for two weeks from the date of transmission of the rejection report. In case of dissatisfaction with the results of the tests, the manufacturer may make claim for a rehearing within that time.
13. Product Marking
13.1 Castings shall be marked for the material identi?cation with the ASTM speci?cation designation (A 494/A 494M) and grade symbol, that is, CY40. The manufacturer’s name or identi?cation mark and the pattern number shall be cast or stamped on all castings except those of such small size as to make such marking impractical. To minimize small defects caused by dislodged particles of molding sand, the number of cast identi?cation marks shall be minimized. The marking of heat numbers on individual castings shall be agreed upon by the manufacturer and the purchaser. Markings shall be in such position as not to injure the usefulness of the casting.
13.1.1 When the castings are too small to mark individually, a symbol traceable to the heat shall be placed on the castings and the required identi?cation then placed on a tag affixed to the container in which these castings are shipped.
14. Keywords
14.1 corrosion-resistant applications; nickel; nickel alloy castings; nickel alloys; nickel castings

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A 494/A 494M – 09 SUPPLEMENTARY REQUIREMENTS

The following supplementary requirements shall not apply unless speci?ed in the purchase order. A list of standard supplementary requirements for use at the option of the purchaser is included in Speci?cation A 781/A 781M. Those which are ordinarily considered for use with this speci?cation are given below; others enumerated in Speci?cation A 781/A 781M may be used with this speci?cation upon agreement between the manufacturer and the purchaser.

S2. Radiographic Examination

S3. Liquid Penetrant Examination

S6. Certi?cation

S10. Hardness Tests
S10.1 When composition M25S material is ordered with a hardness maximum or range in the as-cast or solution-treated condition, hardness tests shall be made in accordance with Test Methods and De?nitions A 370. The test location, number of tests, and hardness values shall be agreed upon between the manufacturer and purchaser.
S10.1.1 If castings are ordered in the as-cast condition, hardness determinations shall be made on two different representative areas of each casting or coupon selected for test.
S10.1.1.1 By agreement between purchaser and producer, those as-cast castings that fail to meet the required hardness may be accepted in the solution annealed and hardened condition if the hardness thus developed meets the hardness requirement of the speci?cation.
S10.1.2 If castings ordered are in the solution-treated condition, two sample castings or two coupons representing the lot shall be heat treated for tests (see S10.1.1). Hardness determinations shall be made on two different representative areas of each casting or coupon.
S10.1.3 When hardness tests are made, the specimens shall be at least 1?4 in. [6 mm] in thickness and the area to be tested shall be ground clean before the hardness tests are made.
S22. Weldability Test
S22.1 If weldability tests are speci?ed for M30C or M35-1, prepare a coupon obtained from a test bar shown in Fig. 1 or Fig. 2 for each lot of composition M30C or M35-1 castings. The weld test to be used shall be agreed upon between the purchaser and manufacturer.
S22.1.1 Prepare and weld the test bar cast in accordance with Fig. 1 and in accordance with Fig. 3.
S22.1.1.1 Machine the cast skin and unsound metal from two adjacent faces of the as-cast specimen, exclude the riser face, and cut the specimen into approximately 6-in. [150-mm] lengths.
S22.1.1.2 Clamp the two 6-in. [150 mm] lengths together to form a double V-joint and weld two passes at a time on alternate sides of the specimen using 1?8-in. [3-mm] diameter electrodes that will deposit metal of similar composition of the test pieces.
S22.1.1.3 Allow the specimen to cool to room temperature between passes, remove all ?ux, and examine visually for cracks.

in. [mm]

Metric Equivalents

1

3

4

[25]

[75]

[100]

12 [305]

NOTE—Riser shall be machined off and 1 in. [25 mm] square by 12 in. [305 mm] coupon shall be used for x-weld test. See Fig. 3.
FIG. 1 Weld Test Bar (As Cast)

S22.1.1.4 The clamps may be removed from the specimen after the ?rst two weld passes have been completed.
S22.1.1.5 Deposit alternate series of passes until the double V-groove has been completely ?lled. After the second series (number 4 pass) a 5?32-in. [4-mm] diameter electrode may be used if desired.
S22.1.1.6 During welding allow each pass to cool, clean, and examine visually for cracks. The presence of cracks shall be cause for rejection.
S22.1.1.7 Upon completion of the welding, cut one section approximately 3?4 in. [19 mm] long transverse to the weld from each end and discard.
S22.1.1.8 Polish each end of the remaining center section on a 100/200-grit wheel and etch with concentrated HNO3 or with Lepito’s etchant. Prepare Lepito’s etchant as follows: (1) 15 g of (NH4) 2SO4 dissolved in 75 cm3 of water; (2) 250 g of FeCl3(powdered) dissolved in 100 cm3 of HCl; (3) mix solutions (1) and (2) and add 30 cm3of HNO3.
S22.1.1.9 Examine the etched section under low magni?cation (5 to 103). The lot represented by the test specimen shall be accepted if it complies with the following crack requirements: (1) Three cracks maximum in linear inch of base metal and (2) the length of any crack in the base metal does not exceed 0.20 in. [5 mm].
S22.1.1.10 Cracks observed in the weld metal during the low-magni?cation examination shall not be cause for rejection.

5

A 494/A 494M – 09

in.

1?4

[mm]

[5]

Metric Equivalents

3?8

3?4

11?8

23?4

31?4

6

[10]

[20]

[30]

[70]

[85]

[155]

FIG. 2 Weld Test Bar (As Cast)

in. [mm]

Metric Equivalents 3?4 [20]
FIG. 3 X-Weld Test

41?2 [115]

S22.1.1.11 Failure of welded test bars to comply with any of the requirements S22.1 through S22.1.1.10 shall result in rejection of the lot represented.
S22.1.2 Prepare and weld the test bar cast in accordance with Fig. 2 as follows:
S22.1.2.1 Fill the groove in the block completely with weld deposit using manual metallic arc process with 1?8-in. [3.2–mm]

or 5?32-in. [4-mm] diameter electrodes that will deposit metal of similar composition of the test piece.
S22.1.2.2 Remove one 3?8-in. [10-mm] thick bend coupon longitudinally from the welded block by machining, sawing, abrasive cutting, or other suitable means. Make a transverse side bend test of the welded joint in accordance with Practice A 488/A 488M.
S22.1.2.3 Remove a transverse weld macro-specimen from the welded plate and visually examine for cracks. This specimen may be the same one to be used for the bend specimen.
S22.1.3 Acceptance:
S22.1.3.1 Cracks as tears in the casting in the fusion zone or heat-affected zone of the macro-specimen shall be cause for rejection. Cracks originating at the weld bead undercuts, at weld slag inclusions, or at casting defects shall not be cause for rejection.
S22.1.3.2 Cracks or other open defects exceeding 1?8-in. [3.2 mm] measured in any direction on the convex surface of the bent specimens shall be cause for rejection, except that cracks occurring on the corners while testing and cracks originating at weld bead undercuts shall not be considered.

6

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A 494/A 494M – 09 SUMMARY OF CHANGES

Committee A01 has identi?ed the location of selected changes to this standard since the last issue (A 494/A 494M – 08) that may impact the use of this standard. (Approved May 1, 2009.)

(1) Table 1 was corrected to include correct UNS numbers: N26059 for alloy CX2M and N26022 for alloy CX2MW.

Committee A01 has identi?ed the location of selected changes to this standard since the last issue (A 494/A 494M – 07) that may impact the use of this standard. (Approved Oct. 1, 2008.)

(1) Added a new Paragraph 7.2 with requirements for unspeci?ed residual elements and renumbered the following two paragraphs.

(2) Added alloy family headings and re-grouped the alloys. (3) Added Footnote B in Table 1 for new elemental analysis and reporting requirements.

ASTM International takes no position respecting the validity of any patent rights asserted in connection with any item mentioned in this standard. Users of this standard are expressly advised that determination of the validity of any such patent rights, and the risk of infringement of such rights, are entirely their own responsibility.
This standard is subject to revision at any time by the responsible technical committee and must be reviewed every ?ve years and if not revised, either reapproved or withdrawn. Your comments are invited either for revision of this standard or for additional standards and should be addressed to ASTM International Headquarters. Your comments will receive careful consideration at a meeting of the responsible technical committee, which you may attend. If you feel that your comments have not received a fair hearing you should make your views known to the ASTM Committee on Standards, at the address shown below.
This standard is copyrighted by ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959, United States. Individual reprints (single or multiple copies) of this standard may be obtained by contacting ASTM at the above address or at 610-832-9585 (phone), 610-832-9555 (fax), or service@astm.org (e-mail); or through the ASTM website (www.astm.org).

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