2017-2018学年人教课标高一英语必修3辅导:Unit 1 Festivals around the world GRAMMAR 精品

情态动词 【归纳】 一、can 和 could ★表示能力。can 表示现在的能力,could 表示过去具有某种能力。如: My brother can speak four foreign languages. Sophia could read when she was four years old. 注意:can 表示“能够”时与 be able to 同义,但 can 只有过去式 could,而 be able to 可用于各种时态。 另外, could 表示某人过去有某种能力, 而 was / were able to 表示某人通过努力、克服困难做成某事,相当于 managed to。如: She will not be able to visit the hospital tomorrow. Mike was an excellent tennis player when he was young. He could beat anybody. The fire spread through the building very quickly, but fortunately everybody was able to escape. ★表示许可。could 比 can 表示的说话语气更委婉。如: You can have a piece of cake after you've eaten your vegetables! Could I have a drink of water, please? ★表示可能性。此时 could 不是 can 的过去式,它表示推测的可能性比 can 小。 如: Can he still be alive after all this time? If you're not careful, you could get into even worse trouble. 二、may 和 might ★表示许可或征求对方许可。如: You may / might use my bicycle so long as you return it before 12:00. I can't eat; may / might I have a little brandy? ★表示可能性。might 比 may 语气更不确定,表示的可能性更小。如: He may / might get here in time, but I can't be sure. 三、will 和 would ★表示意愿。will 表示现在的意愿,有时可用于条件句中,would 表示过去的意 愿(would 如表示现在的意愿,语气较委婉)。如: I will help her if she asks us to. Ask, if you will, who the owner is. My friend asked if I would go with him. ★表示征求意见或提出请求。 will 与 would 均可用于主语是第二人称的疑问句中, 表示征求意见或提出请求,此时 would 并不表示过去,而表示委婉语气。如: —I'm cold. Will / Would you shut the window, please? —Certainly. ★表示习惯和倾向性。will 表示现在的习惯,would 表示过去的习惯。如: She will listen to records, alone in her room, for hours. When Ann was a child, she would often ask some strange questions. 四、shall 和 should ★shall 在疑问句中用于征求对方意见,主要用于第一人称,也可用于第三人称, 意为“要不要,……好吗”。如: Shall we go out and have a walk after dinner? Shall Tom go there with me tomorrow? shall 还可用于主语是第二、三人称的陈述句中,表示决心、允诺、警告、命令、 威胁、规定或义务等。如: You shall be punished if you break the rule. Tell her that she shall have the bike tomorrow. ★should 表示义务或责任、建议或劝告、推断等。如: We should take good care of our children. You shouldn't leave a baby alone in the house. I wonder what's happened to Annie. She should be here by now. should 还可以表示惊讶、失望、遗憾等情感,此时意为“竟会”。如: It's strange that Jane should be late. She's usually on time. I'm sorry that you should think so badly of me. 五、must 和 can’t ★must 可表示“必须做某事”,还可表推测。must 表示推测时用于肯定句中,意 为“肯定,一定”。如: I must go to the bank to get some money. —Where is Tran Nguyen from? —I know that's a Vietnamese name. He must be from Vietnam. ★can't 可表否定的推测和判断,意为“不可能”。如: You've just had lunch. You can't be hungry. 【即学即练】 从括号内选择合适的内容完成下面对话。

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